Some excerpts from Fiqh us-Sunnah regarding prayers

Assalaam alaikum dear friends,

I’m quoting some excerpts from the book ‘Fiqh us-Sunnah’, which is written by an American scholar As-Sayyid Sabiq, published by American Trust Publications and is distributed, in the Middle East and Asia, by International Islamic Publishing House, Saudi Arabia. As-Sayyid Sabiq is an Arab American Muslim, who translated ahadith and portions of Quran, with the help of a dedicated team and brought out this book for people like us who do not understand Arabic. If you are able to buy Fiqh us-Sunnah, kitab al-ibadaat, or a book like this, it will be very good for you and the whole family, and if you already have a book like this in your home, please do read it as soon as possible. All of you must read it and practice Islam in the right way and also the easier way. Five individual books are combined in this one book. We are able to know all the related questions, small or big, in the light of quran and ahadith and also what all the four scholars say about interesting and important topics like, 1] purification [at-tahara, wudhu, al-ghusl], 2] prayers, 3] alms tax [sadqa, khairat, zakat], 4] fasting, 5] Hajj and Umrah, in this book.

 

Also I want to tell you that a friend asked me about this book so I told him that in all the five books each has around 150 or so pages and everything is very detailed. I could only write a little in this blog. But I have tried my best to tell you that our religion is very practical and easy. Our ignorance and sticking to one maslak only, makes it difficult and impracticable. We must increase our knowledge of Islam so that we are able to practice it persistently. I wish you best of luck and I pray, practicing Islam becomes easy for us all. Ameen, thume ameen. We must always respect and be polite to our parents and all the elders but if we know something and want to tell them too, we must do that very politely that’s all we can do whether they practice it or not that’s between them and Allah. We must use our knowledge to correct our own mistakes and try to practice Islam more persistently and the best way. Ameen, thume ameen. 

Fiqh us-Sunnah

Volume 1 Purification (at-tahara)

Page 15, Chapter Purifying shoes Abu Sa’eed reported the Prophet, upon whom be peace, saying, ‘When a person comes to the mosque, he should look at his shoes. If he finds any filth on them, he should wipe them against the ground and pray in them.’ (Related by Ahmed and Abu Dawud.)

If a liquid falls on a person and he does not know if it was water or urine, he need not inquire about it. If he does inquire, the one who is asked need not answer him even if he knows that the liquid is impure. In that case, the person need not wash his clothes.

Chapter, Ablution (Wudhu) Page 25, Ablution means to wash one’s face, hands, arms, head and feet with water.

Page 27 (i) Intention. This is the desire to do the action and to please Allah by following his command. It is purely an act of the heart, for the tongue (verbal pronouncement and so on) has nothing to do with it. To pronounce it is not part of Islamic law.

Page 31, Amr ibn Shu’aib related on the authority of his father from his grandfather who said: ‘A Bedouin came to the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, and asked him about the ablution. He showed him how to wash each part three times and said, ‘This is the ablution. Whoever does more than that has done wrong, transgressed and committed evil.’ (Related by Ahmed, an-Nasa’i and Ibn Majah.)

It is also proven that he performed each washing only once or twice. According to most of the reports, he wiped his head only once.

Page 42, Said Buraidah, “The Prophet, upon whom be peace, made ablution for every prayer. On the day of the conquest of Makkah, he made ablution, wiped over his socks and prayed a number of times with just one ablution. ‘Umar said to him, ‘O Messenger of Allah, you did something that you have not done (before).’ He answered; I did it on purpose, ‘Umar.” (Related by Ahmed, Muslim and others.)

Page 44, Wiping over the socks is part of the sunnah. An-Nawawi states, “All those who qualify for ijma’ (consensus) agree that it is allowed to wipe over the socks— during traveling or at home, if needed or not— even a woman who stays at home or a handicapped person who cannot walk can do so. The Shi’ah and Khawarij reject it, but their rejection is not valid.

The strongest hadith on this point has been related by Ahmed, al-Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud and at-Tirmidhi on the authority of Hammam an-Nakha’i who said, “Jarir ibn ‘Abdullah urinated, performed ablution and wiped over his socks.” It was said to him. “You do that and you have urinated?” He said, “Yes I saw the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, urinated and then do likewise.” Said Ibrahim, “They were amazed at that hadith, because Jarir had embraced Islam after surah al-Ma’idah was revealed (10 AH). One of its verses calls for washing ones feet. This hadith helps us understand the verse by confining it to one who is not wearing socks. This constitutes a particular case, and the person who wears socks can just wipe over them.

It is allowed to wipe over slippers, as this has been related from many companions.

There is no real difference between socks and slippers.

Abu Yusuf and Muhammad said, “It is allowed to wipe over them if they are thick and completely hide what they cover.”

Page 45 Even if there are some holes or cuts in the socks, it is permissible to wipe over them, as long as the person has only such socks to wear.

One must have put his socks (or whatever covering he is using) while in a state of purity. Said al-Mughirah ibn Shu’bah, “I was with the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, one night during an expedition. I poured water for him to make ablution. He washed his face and arms and wiped his head. Then I went to remove his socks and he said, ‘leave them on, as I put them on while I was in a state of purity,’ and he just wiped over them.” (Related by Ahmed, al-Bukhari and Muslim).

Page 46 The place to be wiped. Islamic law prescribes that the top of the sock is to be wiped.

The duration of the wiping. For the resident, this period is one day and night. For the traveler it is three days and nights.

I was asked about intention before performing prayer, whether to say it aloud or revise it in the heart. I found this answer in the following chapter of Fiqh us-Sunnah which I wnat to share with all of you.

Volume 1 Purification (at-tahara)

Chapter OBLIGATORY ACTS OF THE PRAYER (SALAH)

Page 119 Intention. Says Allah, “And We did not command them save to worship Allah, making the religion sincerely for Him” (al-Bayinah: 5). The Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, “Every action is based upon intention. For everyone is what he intended. Whoever made the migration to Allah and His Prophet, then his migration is to Allah and His Prophet. Whoever’s migration was for something of this world or for the purpose of marriage, then his migration was to what he migrated to.” (Related by al-Bukhari.)

In Ighatha al-Lufan, Ibn al-Qayyim states, “The intention is the aim and purpose of something. It is a condition of the heart, and it does not come from the tongue. For that reason, the Prophet and his companions never spoke their intentions. What has been introduced into this matter during the actions of purity and the prayer comes from Satan and is a trap for those who are unsure about how to make it. You will find them repeating it over and over, but that is not part of the prayer at all.”

Volume 2 Supererogatory Prayer

Chapter One AT-TATAWWU’ SUPEREROGATORY PRAYERS

Page 1 Their significance: At-tatawwu’, or nawafil or supererogatory prayers, have been legislated to make up for any deficiencies left in the performance of fard salah [obligatory prayers]. In salah there are virtues that are not found in any other form of worship. Abu Hurairah reports that the Prophet Sallallahu alehi wassallam said: “The first thing that the people will be called to account for on the Day of Resurrection will be the prayers. Our Lord will say to the angels although He knows better: ‘Look into the salah of my servant to see if he observed it perfectly or been negligent in it. So if he observed it perfectly it will be recorded to his credit, but if he had been negligent in it in any way, Allah would say: See if My servant has any supererogatory prayers. Then if he has any supererogatory prayers, Allah would say: Make up the deficiency in My servant’s obligatory prayer with his supererogatory prayers.’ Thereafter all his actions will be examined in like manner” [Abu Dawud].

A friend asked me about qasr salah. I’m sending this to all of you. Before reading the following excerpts one must remember that these were compiled when people used to travel on foot. The meaning of word “travel” is much different now. In the days of the Prophet PBUH the maximum a person could travel in one day was considered enough to qasr salah. On the basis of the following hadith, scholars form this opinion. The Prophet PBUH said: “It is not allowed for any woman who believes in Allah and the last day to travel a journey of one day, save in the presence of a male relative.” So the journey traveled by a woman in one day, [starting at day break, going on foot alone, without the company of a male member of the family, and then coming back before dawn] is the distance considered as a journey at which qasr salah is allowed. But in the fast travels of our time. If we cover more than this distance in car and still don’t leave the city we cannot qasr salah.

In this book the words ‘musafir’ and ‘mukeem’ are not used. I consider “mukeem”, resident, is when you are settled, as in a home. And when you go out of home to another place for a short time, where luggage is in a packed state you are a “musafir” traveler. Here it must be mentioned that you have the option of qasr salah for years on also. This you must decide yourself which option you want to take.

Volume 2 Supererogatory Prayer

Chapter Seven

Paragraph THE PRAYER OF A TRAVELER

Page 109 Shortening the prayer that consist of four rak’at: Allah says in the Quran ‘and when you go forth in the land there is no sin upon you, if you shorten your prayer when you fear the disbelievers may attack you.’ Quran 4:101 This concession is not limited to situations of danger.

Ya’la ibn Umaiyyah said; ‘I said to Umar ibn al-Khattab: ‘Explain to me why the people shorten the salah when Allah says, ‘and when you go forth….. [the preceding verse] and those days are gone now; Umar said: ‘I wondered about that too and I mentioned that to the Prophet and he said: “This is a charity that Allah the exalted, has bestowed upon you, so accept His charity.’” This is related by the group.

The issue was also referred to ‘Aishah and she said; “The salah was made fard in Makkah in sets of two rak’at. When the Prophet sallallahu alehi wa aalehi wasallam came to Madinah, two rak’at were added to each salah except the Maghrib salah because it is the witr of the day time, and the dawn prayer due to its lengthy Quranic recital. But if one travels, he performs the original prayer [i.e. only two rak’at]. This is related by Ahmed, al-Baihaqi, Ibn Hibban, and Ibn Khuzaimah. Its narrators are trustworthy.

‘Umar, ‘Ali, Ibn Mas’ud, ibn ‘Abbas, ibn ‘Umar, Jabir and the Hanafi scholars say that it is fard. The Maliki school holds that it is sunnah mu’akadah [the stressed one]; it is even more emphasized than the congressional salah. If the traveler cannot find another traveler to lead him in the salah, he may pray by himself as it is disliked that he should follow one who is a resident [i.e., and pray four rak’at] according to Maliki school. The Hanbali school holds that it is preferred for the person to shorten the prayer rather than to pray the complete salah. The Shaf’I school has a similar opinion, if a person has traveled a sufficient distance.

Page 110 The distance one must travel before shortening one’s prayer: The conclusion from Qur’anic verse is that any traveling, be it long or short, which falls within the linguistic definition of the word “travel” would suffice to shorten the salah, to combine them and break the fast. There is nothing in sunnah which confines this general term to any particular meaning. Ibn al-Mundhir and others have mentioned more than twenty reports on this point. Here we shall mention some of the more important reports.

Ahmed, Muslim, Abu Dawud, and al-Baihaqi record that Yahya ibn Yazid said: “I asked Anas ibn Malik about shortening the prayer, and he said: “The messenger of Allah would pray two rak’at if he had traveled a distance of three miles or farsakh.” Ibn Hajar writes in Fath al-Bari: “This is the most authentic hadith which states and clarifies [that question].” The conflict between mile and farsakh is made clear in Abu Sa’id al-Khudri’s statement: “If the Prophet traveled a distance of one farsakh, he would shorten his prayer.” It is well known that a farsakh equals three miles and therefore, Abu Sa’id’s hadith removes the confusion which arises from Anas’ hadith when he says that the shortest distance, due to which the Prophet shortened his prayer was three miles. One farsakh is equivalent to 5,541 meters while one mile equals 1,748 meters. The shortest distance which has been mentioned with respect to the shortening of salah is one mile. This was recorded by Ibn abi Shaibah, with a sahih chain, on the authority of Ibn ‘Umar. Ibn Hazam follows this report , and argues that if the distance is less than one mile, one is not to shorten the salah, the Messenger of Allah went to the graveyard of al-Baqi’ to bury the dead and [similarly] he went off to answer the call of nature and did not shorten his salah.

Page 111 If there is someone whose occupation requires him to always be traveling, for instance, a pilot, a ship captain, truck driver, and so on, then he is permitted to shorten his salah or break his fast as he is truly traveling.

Whence one may shorten one’s salah: The majority of the scholars are of the opinion that it is permissible to shorten ones salah when one leaves one’s residence and is outside of one’s city, and that is a condition, and he is not to resume his regular salah until he reaches the first houses of his city.

Ibn al-Mundhir says: “I do not know of the Prophet shortening his salah during any of his travels until after he had left Medinah.”

Page 112 Whence the traveler is to pray the complete salah: A traveler may shorten his salah as long as he is on a journey. Likewise if he stays in some place for business or some other affair, then he may shorten his salah, as long as he is there, even for years. If the person intends to stay in a place for a certain amount of time then, according to Ibn al-Qayyim, he remains a traveler, regardless of whether he plans to stay there for a long or short time, as long as he does not plan to stay [i.e., reside and not return] in the place that he traveled to. The scholars differ on this point. Summing up and giving his own opinion, Ibn al-Qayyim says: “The messenger of Allah stayed in Tabuk for twenty days and during that time he shortened his salah and he did not say that one may not shorten his salah if he stays longer than that, although there is agreement that he did stay there for that period of time.”

In Sahih al-Bukhari, it is recorded that Ibn ‘Abbas said; “The Prophet stayed, during some of his journeys, for nineteen days and he prayed only two rak’at. If we stayed in a place for nineteen days, we would not pray the complete salah. However if we stayed longer than that, we would perform the whole salah.”

Al-Miswar Ibn Mukhramah reports: “We stayed with Sa’d in some of the cities of ash-Sham [Syria] for forty days, and Sa’d would perform qasr while we would offer the whole salah.” Naf’i relates: “Ibn ‘Umar was in Azerbaijan for six months, as there was snow blocking the pass, and he would pray two rak’at.” Hafs ibn ‘Ubaidullah says: “Anas ibn Malik stayed in as-Sham for two years and he prayed the salah of a traveler.” Anas relates: “The companions of the Prophet stayed in Ram Hurmuz for seven months and they shortened their salah.” Al-Hasan reports: “I stayed with ‘Abdurrahman ibn Samurah for two years in Kabul, and he shortened his salah but did not combine the salah.” Ibrahim says: “We resided in Rai for a year or more and in Sijistan for two years… [and we prayed qasr].

This is the guidance of the Prophet and his companions, and this is the correct position.

Concerning other opinions which people follow Imam Ahmed say: “If a person intends to stay for four days, he has to offer the whole salah and he may offer qasr if his intention is for less than that.”

Page 113 Malik and ash-Shaf’I say: “If one intends to stay for more than four days, he should perform the whole salah, and if he intends to stay for less than that, he is to offer qasr.”

Abu Hanifa holds: “If one intends to stay for fifteen days, he should do qasr. If he intends to stay for more than that, he should not shorten the salah.” This is also the opinion of al-Laith ibn Sa’d, and it has also been related from three companions: ‘Umar, ibn ‘Umar, and Ibn ‘Abbas.

Page 114 ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib says that if one stays for ten days, he is to perform the whole salah, and the same has been related from Ibn ‘Abbas.

Al-Hassan says: “One who does not get to his destination or [city of residence] may shorten salah.”

‘Aishah says: “One who does not put down his provision is to shorten the salah.”

The four Imams agree that if one has some need to care of and always has the intention of leaving the next day, then he may shorten his salah for as long as he is in that state. Ibn al-Mundhir states in his Ishraf: “the people of knowledge are in agreement that a traveler may perform qasr as long as he does not intend to stay in a place, even though he stays there for years.”

Nawafil during travel: The majority of the scholars are of the opinion that it is not disliked to perform nawafil during the state in which one is shortening his salah. On this point there is no difference between regular sunnah prayers and other nawafil.

Ibn ‘Umar reports that the Prophet prayed while riding in what ever direction he was facing and nodding his head [i.e., for the movements of the salah].

Al-Hassan relates: “The companions of the Prophet while on a journey performed supererogatory prayers before and after the fard salah.”

Ibn ‘Umar and others are of the opinion that there are no nawafil, before or after the fard salah, except for during the middle of the night. He saw some people praying after the salah and said: “If I were to pray, I would have performed the whole salah [as obviously that would have taken preference]. O nephew, I accompanied the Messenger of Allah [on journeys] and he never prayed more than two rak’at until Allah took his soul. And I accompanied Abu Bakr and he did not pray more than two rak’at.” He also mentioned the name of ‘Umar and ‘Usman, then he recited the verse: “Ye have indeed in the messenger of Allah a beautiful pattern [of conduct].” Quran 33:21 This is related by Bukhari.

Volume 2 Supererogatory Prayer

Chapter Seven

Paragraph

Combining Two Prayers

Page 115 It is allowed for a person to combine the zuhr and ‘asr salah, either during the time of the earlier or the later salah, or the maghrib and ‘isha prayers.

Page 118 Ibn Taimiyyah says: “Among the opinions most accommodating on this question is that of the Hanbali school which allows one to combine the prayers if he is busy (since an-Nasa’i has related something to that effect from the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam) and they also say that the cook and the baker, and so forth may also combine their prayers if they fear their wealth (i.e. their investment or what they are working on) will otherwise be ruined.” 

Imam an-Nawawi writes in his commentary on Sahih Muslim: “The majority of the scholars are of the opinion that it is allowed for the resident to combine prayers due to some pressing need.

This is supported by the statement of ibn Abbas…. recorded by Imam Muslim who states: “The Messenger of Allah combined the zuhr and ‘asr and then the maghrib and ‘isha in Medinah without there being any danger or rain.” Ibn ‘Abbas was asked: “What did he desire by that action?” He replied: “He did not want any hardship for his ummah.” Al-Bukhari and Muslim record from him that the Prophet prayed eight rak’at and seven rak’at, i.e., the zuhr and ‘asr together and the maghrib and ‘isha together, in Medinah.

Page 119 In al-Mughni it is stated: “If someone performs both prayers at the time of the earlier salah and then his reason for doing so ceases to exist after he has completed the salah and before the time of the next salah begins [i.e. the next salah being the one which he has just prayed during the earlier time], then what he has done is sufficient for him and he need not repeat the second salah at its proper time.

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