Eat not up your property among yourself unjustly except it be a trade amongst you, by mutual consent. And do not kill yourselves (nor kill one another). If you avoid the great sins which you are forbidden to do, We shall expiate from you your (small) sins. Quran: 4: 29- 31

In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

Quran: Chapter 6, La Yuhibbu’, Sura: 4 ‘An-Nisa’ ‘The Women’, Verse: 29- 31

Verse 29: O you who believe! Eat not up your property among yourself unjustly except it be a trade amongst you, by mutual consent. And do not kill yourselves (nor kill one another). Surely, Allah is Most Merciful to you.

Verse 30: And whoever commits that through aggression and injustice, We shall cast him into the Fire, and that is very easy for Allah.

Verse 31: If you avoid the great sins which you are forbidden to do, We shall expiate from you your (small) sins

{Disclaimer;  Explanation by Ibne Kathir is researched and written by

http://www.quran4u.com/Tafsir%20Ibn%20Kathir/004%20Nisa.htm#يَـأَيُّهَ

 I just copy-pasted from that site. I only added the date of births, date of deaths of the scholars and the places at which they took place. I also added some more text color than in the original article.}

Explanation by Ibne Kathir[The respected Imam, Abu Al-Fida’, `Imad Ad-Din Isma il bin ‘Umar bin Kathir Al-Qurashi Al-Busrawi– born in Busra 701 H– died in Damascus in 774 H// b. 1301 Christian Era– d. 1373CE. http://www.dar-us-salam.com/authors/hafiz-ibn-kathir.htm ]

Prohibiting unlawfully earned money

Allah says; O you who believe! Eat not up your property among yourselves unjustly except it be a trade amongst you, by mutual consent.

Allah, the Exalted and Most Honored, prohibits His believing servants from illegally acquiring each other’s property using various dishonest methods such as Riba, gambling and other wicked methods that appear to be legal, but Allah knows that, in reality, those involved seek to deal in interest.

Ibn Jarir recorded

[Abu Ja’far Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari born 224 H 838 CE in Amol, Tapuria Iran– died 310 H. 923 CE Baghdad. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muhammad_ibn_Jarir_al-Tabari#Biography ]

that Ibn Abbas commented on a man who buys a garment, saying that; “if he likes it he will keep it, or he will return it along with an extra Dirham.” This is what Allah meant, when He said, لاَ تَأْكُلُواْ أَمْوَالَكُمْ بَيْنَكُمْ بِالْبَاطِلِ Eat not up your property among yourselves unjustly.

Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas said, “When Allah sent down, يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ لاَ تَأْكُلُواْ أَمْوَالَكُمْ بَيْنَكُمْ بِالْبَاطِلِ (O you who believe! Eat not up your property among yourselves unjustly) some Muslims said, `Allah has forbidden us from eating up each other’s property unjustly, and food is our best property. Therefore, none among us is allowed to eat from anyone else’s food.’ After that Allah sent down,لَيْسَ عَلَى الْأَعْمَى حَرَجٌ (There is no restriction on the blind) until the end of the Ayah. (Sura: 24 ‘An Nur’ ‘The Light’, Verse: 61)”’ Qatadah said similarly.

Allah’s statement, except it be a trade amongst you, by mutual consent; means, do not revert to illegal ways and means to acquire money. However, there is no harm in commercial transactions that transpire between the buyer and the seller with mutual consent, so that money is legally earned from these transactions.

Mujahid commented on the Ayah, “By selling and buying, or giving someone a gift.” Ibn Jarir recorded this statement.

The option to buy or sell before parting, is part of ‘Mutual Consent’ in Trading

Mutual agreement in various transactions is attained when both parties have the right to uphold or dissolve the agreement before they part. In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that the Messenger of Allah said, The seller and the buyer retain the (right to change their mind) as long as they have not parted. Al-Bukhari‘s wording for this Hadith reads, When two men conduct a transaction, they retain their (right to change their mind) as long as they have not parted.

[Imâm Abû `Abdullâh Muhammad ibn Ismâ`îl al-Bukhârî (b. 194 H Bukhara present day Uzbekistan– d. 256 H Kharteng / 809 CE- 869 CE) http://www.sunnah.org/history/Scholars/imam_bukhari.htm ]

Forbiding Murder and Suicide

Allah said, And do not kill yourselves, by committing Allah’s prohibitions, falling into sin and eating up each other’s property unjustly, Surely, Allah is Most Merciful to you, in what He commanded you and prohibited you from.

Imam Ahmad recorded

[Imam Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Hambal (b. 164 A.H. Baghdad /780 CE. — d. 241 A.H. Baghdad/ 855 CE) http://www.renaissance.com.pk/mjuletfor96.html ]

that `Amr bin Al-`As said that; when the Prophet sent him for the battle of Dhat As-Salasil, “I had a wet dream during a very cold night and feared that if I bathed, I would die. So I performed Tayammum (with pure earth) and led my company in the Dawn prayer. When I went back to the Messenger of Allah, I mentioned what had happened to me and he said, O `Amr! Have you led your people in prayer while you were in a state of sexual impurity? I said, ‘O Messenger of Allah! I had a wet dream on a very cold night and feared that if I bathed I would perish, and I remembered Allah’s statement, وَلاَ تَقْتُلُواْ أَنفُسَكُمْ إِنَّ اللّهَ كَانَ بِكُمْ رَحِيمًا (And do not kill yourselves. Surely, Allah is Most Merciful to you). So I performed Tayammum and prayed.’ The Messenger of Allah smiled and did not say anything.”

This is the narration reported by Abu Dawud.

[Imam Abu Dawud Sulaiman ibn Ash`ath ibn Ishaq ibn Bashir ibn Shaddad ibn `Umar ibn `Imran al-Azdi Sajastani, born in Sajistan, Khurasan, in 202 A.H., 817 CE, died on Friday 16th Shawwal 275 A.H., 889 CE, at the age of 72. http://www.sunnah.org/history/Scholars/imam_abu_dawud.htm ]

Ibn Marduwyah mentioned this honorable Ayah and then reported that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said, Whoever kills himself with an iron tool, then his tool will be in his hand and he will keep stabbing himself with it in the Fire of Jahannam, forever and ever. Whoever kills himself with poison, then his poison will be in his hand and he will keep taking it in the Fire of Jahannam forever and Whoever kills himself by throwing himself from a mountain, will keep falling in the Fire of Jahannam forever and ever. This Hadith was also collected in the Two Sahihs.

Abu Qilabah said that Thabit bin Ad-Dahhak said that the Messenger of Allah said, Whoever kills himself with an instrument, will be punished with it on the Day of Resurrection. This Hadith was collected by the Group. This is why Allah said, And whoever commits that through aggression and injustice, meaning, whoever commits what Allah has forbidden for him transgression and injustice – while knowing that it is forbidden for him, yet he still dares to commit it, We shall cast him into the Fire, This Ayah carries a stern warning and a truthful promise. Therefore, every sane person should beware of it, those who hear the speech with full comprehension. And that is easy for Allah.

Minor Sins will be pardoned if one refrains from Major Sins

Allah said, If you avoid the great sins which you are forbidden to do, We shall remit from you your (small) sins), meaning, if you avoid the major evil deeds that you were prohibited We will forgive you the minor evil deeds and will admit you into Paradise.

This is why Allah said, and admit you to a Noble Entrance (i.e. Paradise).

There are several Hadiths on the subject of this honorable Ayah. Imam Ahmad recorded that Salman Al-Farisi said, “The Prophet said to me, `Do you know what the day of Al-Jumu`ah is?’ I said, `It is the day during which Allah brought together the creation of your father (Adam).’

He said, I know what the day of Jumu`ah is. Anyone who takes a bath and cleans himself as much as he can and then proceeds for the Friday prayer and remains quiet until the Imam finishes the prayer, all his sins in between the present and the next Friday will be forgiven, as long as major sins were avoided.”

Al-Bukhari recorded similar wording from Salman Al-Farisi.

The Seven Destructive Sins

In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

Avoid the seven great destructive sins. The people inquired, ‘O Allah’s Messenger! What are they?’ He said,

  • To join others in worship along with Allah,
  • to kill the life which Allah has forbidden except for a just cause,
  • magic,
  • to consume Riba,
  • to consume an orphan’s wealth,
  • to turn away from the enemy and flee from the battlefield when the battle begins, and
  • to accuse chaste women, who never even think of anything that would tarnish their chastity and are good believers.

Another Hadith that mentions False Witness

Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas bin Malik said, “The Messenger of Allah mentioned the major sins, or was asked about the major sins. He said, Associating others with Allah in worship, killing the life, and being undutiful to the parents.

He then said, Should I tell you about the biggest of the major sins? The false statement – or the false testimony.”

Shu`bah – one of the narrators of the Hadith – said, “Most likely, in my opinion, he said, `False testimony.”’

The Two Sahihs recorded this Hadith from Shu`bah from Anas.

Another Hadith In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that Abdur-Rahman bin Abi Bakrah said that his father said, “The Prophet said, Should I inform you about the greatest of the great sins? We said, `Yes, O Allah’s Messenger!’ He said, To join others in worship with Allah and to be undutiful to one’s parents. He was reclining, then he sat up and said; And I warn you against false testimony and false speech. And he continued repeating it until we wished that he would stop.”

Another Hadith that mentions killing the Offspring

In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that Abdullah bin Mas`ud said, “I asked, `O Allah’s Messenger! What is the greatest sin?’ (in one narration the biggest sin).’ He said, To make a rival for Allah while He Alone created you. I said, `Then.’ He said, To kill your offspring for fear that he might share your food with you. I said, `Then.’ He said, To commit adultery with your neighbor’s wife. He then recited, وَالَّذِينَ لَا يَدْعُونَ مَعَ اللَّهِ إِلَهًا آخَرَ (And those who invoke not any other god along with Allah), until, إِلَّا مَن تَابَ (Except those who repent).” (Sura 25, ‘Al Furqan’, ‘The Criterion’ Verse: 68-70)

Another Hadith from Abdullah bin `Amr Imam Ahmad recorded that Abdullah bin `Amr said that the Prophet said,

The greatest sins are:

  • To join others in worship with Allah,
  • to be undutiful to one’s parents –
  • or to take a life.

Shu`bah was uncertain of which one – (and the false oath).

Recorded by Al-Bukhari, At-Tirmidhi, and An-Nasai.

Another Hadith by Abdullah bin ‘Amr about causing one’s parents to be cursed

Abdullah bin `Amr said that the Messenger of Allah said, Among the worst of the Major sins is for a man to curse his own parents. They said, “How can one curse his own parents?” He said, One curses another man’s father, and that man curses his father in retaliation, or he curses someone’s mother and that man curses his mother. This is the wording of Muslim.

At-Tirmidhi said, “Sahih.” It is recorded in the Sahih that the Messenger of Allah said, Cursing a Muslim is a sin and fighting him is Kufr.

[Imam Abū ‛Īsa Muḥammad ibn ‛Īsa ibn Sawrah ibn Mūsa ibn al Ḍaḥḥāk al-Sulamīat-Tirmidhī (b. 209 AH- d. 279 AH Bawag /b. 824- d. 892 CE) http://sunnah.com/tirmidhi/about ]

Explanation by samia2010oct:

Allah promises that He SubHanWaTaala will forgive Small Sins of a person who avoids Big Sins.

All the sins that are mentioned in The Noble Quran and in The Traditions of Prophet Muhammad Peace Be Upon Him [ahadith] are the Major Sins, the Great Sins, and the Big Sins. For example Major Sins include shirk, not to fulfill one’s duties towards parents- children- community etc etc, to commit adultery, to eat up orphan’s assets, to kill innocent person, to commit suicide, to give false evidence, lying, hopelessness etc, etc.

Bad intentions are Sins. Punishment is for bad intentions. Small Sins are actions which if done intentionally fall into Big Sins category, such actions if done unintentionally, or unknowingly that they are sins, they fall into Small Sins category. To explain Small Sins further take example of Sin of eyes. If a semi nude picture displayed on a public place is seen, the first look is unintentional so it is a Small sin. But the second look becomes intentional so the second look falls in the Big Sin of the eyes. Second example can be taken of lying or talking irresponsibly, which are Big Sins, Gunaah e Kabira. If a person does not know the actual truth about a situation and repeats same thing unknowingly what he/she heard from others, without first confirming the reality, that first unknowing action is Small Sin but if it is done knowing that it is untrue then he/ she will be thrown into category of liars and will have punishment of burning in Fire.

…………………………………………………………………

From Suite101

Minor sins are acts which are displeasing to Allah but for which no specific punishment or severe warning has been issued. In this case, a Muslim’s conscience and heart help him to know that an act is sinful.

The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said, “Righteousness is good character, and sin is that which wavers in your heart and which you do not want people to know about.” (Muslim)

Minor sins are not, however, to be taken lightly, as disobeying Allah is always a serious matter. Allah says: “You counted it a little thing, while with Allah it was very great.” (Qur’an 24:15)

Minor sins can easily lead someone to commit a major sin, and repeatedly committing a minor sin will change its status to that of a major sin.

Furthermore, habitual sinning causes a Muslim to lose faith and disregard the commandments of Allah. In the Qur’an, Allah says: “Nay, their hearts have been sealed by the sins they have accumulated.” (Qur’an 83:14).

Read more at Suite101: Major and Minor Sins in Islam: Sinful Acts According to Qur’an and Hadith | Suite101.com http://suite101.com/article/major-and-minor-sins-in-islam-a99331#ixzz1woa7X4MQ

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