As regards your children’s (inheritance): to the male, a portion equal to that of two females; if (there are) only daughters, two or more, their share is two-thirds of the inheritance; if only one, her share is half. For parents, a sixth share of inheritance to each if the deceased left children; if no children, and the parents are the (only) heirs, the mother has a third; if the deceased left brothers or (sisters), the mother has sixth. (The distribution in all cases is) after the payment of legacies he may have bequeathed or debts. In that which your wives leave, your share is half if they have no child; but if they have a child, you get a fourth of that which they leave ater payment of legacies that they may have bequeathed or debts. In that which you leave, their (your wifes) share is a fourth if you have no child; but if you leave a child, they get an eighth of that which you leave after payment of legacies that you may have bequeathed or debts. If the man or woman whose inheritance is in question has left neither ascendants nor descendants, but has left a brother or a sister, each one of the two gets a sixth; but if more than two, they share in a third, after payment of legacies he (or she) may have bequeathed or debts, so that no loss is caused (to anyone). Quran 4: 11-12 It is Big Sin, Gunaah e Kabira, to change the Divine Laws of Inheritance written in Quran by changing the shares so to give more to one and deprive the other. For Big Sins, Gunaah e Kabira, there is the punishment of unbearable burning of whole body by Unending Fire.

In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

For the convenience of the readers I color the ‘Tags’: bequeath, brother, commandment, daughter, debts, husband, man, men, mother, neither ascendants nor descendant,  parents, sister, wife, woman, male, female, child, father, Kalalah 

Quran: Chapter 4, ‘Lan Tanalu’ ‘By no means shall you attain’, Sura: 4 ‘An-Nisa’ ‘The Women’

Verse 7: There is a share for men and a share for women from what is left by parents and those nearest related, whether, the property be small or large —– a legal share.

In Verses 11- 12,

Verse 11: Allah commands you as regards your children’s (inheritance): to the male, a portion equal to that of two females; if (there are) only daughters, two or more, their share is two-thirds of the inheritance; if only one, her share is half. For parents, a sixth share of inheritance to each if the deceased left children; if no children, and the parents are the (only) heirs, the mother has a third; if the deceased left brothers or (sisters), the mother has sixth. (The distribution in all cases is) after the payment of legacies he may have bequeathed or debts. You know not which of them, whether your parents or your children, are nearest to you in benefit; (these fixed shares) are ordained by Allah. And Allah is Ever All-Knower, All-Wise.

Legacies: gifts, donations. Bequeath: The act of giving or leaving personal property by a will. Debt: An amount owed to a person for funds borrowed.

Verse 12: In that which your wives leave, your share is half if they have no child; but if they have a child, you get a fourth of that which they leave after payment of legacies that they may have bequeathed or debts. In that which you leave, their (your wifes) share is a fourth if you have no child; but if you leave a child, they get an eighth of that which you leave after payment of legacies that you may have bequeathed or debts. If the man or woman whose inheritance is in question has left neither ascendants nor descendants, but has left a brother or a sister, each one of the two gets a sixth; but if more than two, they share in a third, after payment of legacies he (or she) may have bequeathed or debts, so that no loss is caused (to anyone). This is a Commandment from Allah; and Allah is Ever All-Knowing, Most-Forbearing.

For Verse 11: Allah commands you as regards your children’s (inheritance): to the male, a portion equal to that of two females; if (there are) only daughters, two or more, their share is two-thirds of the inheritance; if only one, her share is half. For parents, a sixth share of inheritance to each if the deceased left children; if no children, and the parents are the (only) heirs, the mother has a third; if the deceased left brothers or (sisters), the mother has sixth. (The distribution in all cases is) after the payment of legacies he may have bequeathed or debts. You know not which of them, whether your parents or your children, are nearest to you in benefit; (these fixed shares) are ordained by Allah. And Allah is Ever All-Knower, All-Wise.

Explanation by Ibne Kathir: [The respected Imam, Abu Al-Fida’, `Imad Ad-Din Isma il bin ‘Umar bin Kathir Al-Qurashi Al-Busrawi– born in Busra 701 H– died in Damascus in 774 H// b. 1301 Christian Era– d. 1373CE. http://www.dar-us-salam.com/authors/hafiz-ibn-kathir.htm ]

Learning the Various Shares of the Inheritance is Encouraged

This, the following, and the last honorable Ayah in this Surah contain the knowledge of Al-Fara’id, inheritance. The knowledge of Al-Fara’id is derived from these three Ayat and from the Hadiths on this subject which explain them. Learning this knowledge is encouraged, especially the specific things mentioned in the Ayat.

Ibn Uyaynah said;

“Knowledge of Al-Fara’id was called half of knowledge, because it effects all people.”

The Reason Behind Revealing Ayah 4:11

Explaining this Ayah, Al-Bukhari recorded that Jabir bin Abdullah said,

“Allah’s Messenger came visiting me on foot with Abu Bakr at Banu Salamah’s (dwellings), and the Prophet found me unconscious.

He asked for some water, performed ablution with it, then poured it on me, and I regained consciousness.

I said, `What do you command me to do with my money, O Allah’s Messenger?’

this Ayah was later revealed, يُوصِيكُمُ اللّهُ فِي أَوْلاَدِكُمْ لِلذَّكَرِ مِثْلُ حَظِّ الأُنثَيَيْنِ (Allah commands you for your children’s (inheritance); to the male, a portion equal to that of two females).”

This is how it was recorded by Muslim and An-Nasa’i.

The remainder of the Six compilers also collected this Hadith.

Difficult words by samia2010oct: Al-Bukhari: Full name Imâm Abû `Abdullâh Muhammad ibn Ismâ`îl al-Bukhârî (194 H- 265 H / 809 CE- 878 CE) http://www.sunnah.org/history/Scholars/imam_bukhari.htm

Muslim: Full name Imam Abu’l-Husain ‘Asakir-ud-Din Muslim b. Hajjaj al-Qushayri al-Naisaburi (202 H – 261H/ 817 CE- 874 CE) http://www.sunnah.org/history/Scholars/Imam_muslim.htm

An-Nasa’i: Imam Aḥmad ibn Shu`ayb ibn `Alī ibn Sīnān Abū `Abd ar-Raḥmān al-Nasā’ī (214 -303 AH/ ca. 829 – 915 AD/CE) http://sunnah.com/nasai/about

Explanation by Ibne Kathir continued

Another Hadith from Jabir concerning the reason behind revealing Ayah 4:11 Ahmad recorded from Jabir that he said,

“The wife of Sa`d bin Ar-Rabi came to Allah’s Messenger and said to him, `O Allah’s Messenger! These are the two daughters of Sa`d bin Ar-Rabi, who was killed as a martyr at Uhud. Their uncle took their money and did not leave anything for them. They will not be married unless they have money.’

The Messenger said, `Allah will decide on this matter.’

The Ayah about the inheritance was later revealed and the Messenger of Allah sent word to their uncle commanding him,

أَعْطِ ابْنَتَيْ سَعْدٍ الثُّلُثَيْنِ، وَأُمَّهُمَا الثُّمُنَ، وَمَا بقِيَ فَهُوَ لَك

Give two-thirds (of Sa`d’s money) to Sa`d’s two daughters and one eighth for their mother, and whatever is left is yours.”

Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi, and Ibn Majah collected this Hadith.

It is apparent, however, that the first Hadith from Jabir was about the case of the last Ayah in the Surah (4:176, rather than 4:11), for at the time this incident occurred, Jabir had sisters and did not have daughters, parents or offspring to inherit from him. Yet, we mentioned the Hadith here just as Al-Bukhari did.

Males Get Two Times the Share of Females for Inheritance

Allah said,

يُوصِيكُمُ اللّهُ فِي أَوْلاَدِكُمْ لِلذَّكَرِ مِثْلُ حَظِّ الأُنثَيَيْنِ …                        

Allah commands you for your children’s (inheritance): to the male, a portion equal to that of two females;

Allah commands: observe justice with your children.

The people of Jahiliyyah used to give the males, but not the females, a share in the inheritance. Therefore, Allah commands that both males and females take a share in the inheritance, although the portion of the males is twice as much as that of the females. There is a distinction because men need money to spend on their dependants, commercial transactions, work and fulfilling their obligations. Consequently, men get twice the portion of the inheritance that females get.

Allah’s statement, يُوصِيكُمُ اللّهُ فِي أَوْلاَدِكُمْ لِلذَّكَرِ مِثْلُ حَظِّ الأُنثَيَيْنِ (Allah commands you for your children’s (inheritance): to the male, a portion equal to that of two females); testifies to the fact that Allah is more merciful with children than their own parents are with them, since He commands the parents to be just and fair with their own children. An authentic Hadith stated that;

a captured woman was looking for her child and when she found him, she held him, gave him her breast and nursed him. The Messenger of Allah said to his Companions,

أَتُرَوْنَ هذِهِ طَارِحَةً وَلَدَهَا فِي النَّارِ وَهِيَ تَقْدِرُ عَلى ذَلِك

Do you think that this woman would willingly throw her child in the fire?

They said, “No, O Messenger of Allah.”

He said,

فَوَاللهِ للهُ أَرْحَمُ بِعِبَادِهِ مِنْ هذِهِ بِوَلَدِهَا

By Allah! Allah is more merciful with His servants than this woman is with her own child.

Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn Abbas said,

“The custom (in old days) was that the property of the deceased would be inherited by his offspring; as for the parents (of the deceased), they would inherit by the will of the deceased. Then Allah cancelled whatever He willed from that custom and ordained that the male get twice the amount inherited by the female, and for each parent a sixth (of the whole legacy), for the wife an eighth or a fourth, and for the husband a half or a fourth.”

The Share of the Females When They Are the Only Eligible Heirs

Allah said,

… فَإِن كُنَّ نِسَاء فَوْقَ اثْنَتَيْنِ فَلَهُنَّ ثُلُثَا مَا تَرَكَ …

if only daughters, two or more, their share is two-thirds of the inheritance;

We should mention here that some people said the Ayah only means two daughters, and that `more’ is redundant, which is not true. Nothing in the Qur’an is useless or redundant. Had the Ayah been talking about only two women, it would have said, “The share of both of them is two-thirds.”

Difficult word by Samia2010oct: Redundant:unnecessary repetition in expressing ideas.

As for the daughters, two or more, the ruling that they get two-thirds was derived from this Ayah, stating that the two sisters get two-thirds. We also mentioned the Hadith in which the Prophet commanded that two-thirds be the share of the two daughters of Sa`d bin Ar-Rabi. So this is proven in the Book and the Sunnah.

… وَإِن كَانَتْ وَاحِدَةً فَلَهَا النِّصْفُ …

(if only one, her share is half.) If there are two daughters, then there are texts to prove they share a half. Therefore, two-thirds is the share of the two daughters or sisters, and Allah knows best.

Share of the Parents in the Inheritance

Allah said,

… وَلأَبَوَيْهِ لِكُلِّ وَاحِدٍ مِّنْهُمَا السُّدُسُ مِمَّا تَرَكَ إِن كَانَ لَهُ وَلَدٌ فَإِن لَّمْ يَكُن لَّهُ وَلَدٌ وَوَرِثَهُ أَبَوَاهُ فَلأُمِّهِ الثُّلُثُ فَإِن كَانَ لَهُ إِخْوَةٌ فَلأُمِّهِ السُّدُسُ …

For parents, a sixth share of inheritance to each, if the deceased left children; if no children, and the parents are the (only) heirs, the mother has a third; if the deceased left brothers or (sisters), the mother has a sixth.

There are several forms of the share that the parents get in the inheritance.

If the deceased left behind children, the parents get a sixth each. When the deceased had only one daughter, she gets half of the inheritance and the parents each one sixth, and another sixth is given to the father.

When the parents are the only inheritors, the mother gets one-third while the father gets the remaining two-thirds. In this case, the father’s share will be twice the mother’s share.

If the deceased had a surviving spouse, the spouse gets half, in the case of a husband, or a fourth in the case of a surviving wife. In both cases, the mother of the deceased gets one-third of the remaining inheritance. This is because the remaining portion of the inheritance is treated just as the entire legacy in regard to the parents’ share. Allah has given the mother one-half of what the father gets. Therefore, the mother gets a third of the remaining inheritance while the father gets two-thirds.

If the deceased left behind surviving brothers and sisters, whether half brothers, half sisters or from the same father and mother, their presence does not cause reduction in the father’s share. Yet, their presence reduces the share of the mother to one-sixth instead of one-third, and the father gets the rest, when there are no other heirs.

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Qatadah commented on the Ayah, وَلأَبَوَيْهِ لِكُلِّ وَاحِدٍ مِّنْهُمَا السُّدُسُ (If the deceased left brothers or (sisters), the mother has a sixth).

“Their presence will reduce the share of the mother, but they will not inherit. If there is only one surviving brother, the mother’s share will remain one-third, but her share will be reduced if there is more than one surviving brother. The people of knowledge attribute this reduction in the mother’s share from one-third (to one-sixth) to the fact that the father is the one who helps the brothers (and sisters) of the deceased get married, spending from his own money for this purpose. The mother does not spend from her money for this purpose.”

This is a sound opinion.

First the Debts are Paid Off, then the Will, then the Fixed Inheritance

Allah said,

… مِن بَعْدِ وَصِيَّةٍ يُوصِي بِهَا أَوْ دَيْنٍ …

(The distribution in all cases is) after the payment of legacies he may have bequeathed or debts.

The scholars of the Salaf and the Khalaf agree that paying debts comes before fulfilling the will, and this is apparent to those who read the Ayah carefully.

Allah said next,

… آبَآؤُكُمْ وَأَبناؤُكُمْ لاَ تَدْرُونَ أَيُّهُمْ أَقْرَبُ لَكُمْ نَفْعاً …

You know not which of them, whether your parents or your children, are nearest to you in benefit.

This Ayah means: We have appointed a share to the parents and children, contrary to the practice of Jahiliyyah and the early Islamic era, when the inheritance would go to the children, and parents get a share only if they were named in the will, as Ibn Abbas stated. Allah abrogated this practice and appointed a fixed share for the children and for the parents. One may derive benefit in this life or for the Hereafter from his parents, the likes of which he could not get from his children. The opposite of this could also be true.

Allah said, آبَآؤُكُمْ وَأَبناؤُكُمْ لاَ تَدْرُونَ أَيُّهُمْ أَقْرَبُ لَكُمْ نَفْعاً (You know not which of them, whether your parents or your children, are nearest to you in benefit),

since benefit could come from one or the other of these relatives, We appointed a fixed share of inheritance for each.

Allah knows best.

Allah said,

… فَرِيضَةً مِّنَ اللّهِ …

ordained by Allah,

meaning: These appointed shares of inheritance that We mentioned and which give some inheritors a bigger share than others, is a commandment from Allah that He has decided and ordained.

… إِنَّ اللّهَ كَانَ عَلِيما حَكِيمًا ﴿١١﴾

And Allah is Ever All-Knower, All-Wise.

Who places everything in its rightful place and gives each his rightful share.

http://www.quran4u.com/Tafsir%20Ibn%20Kathir/004%20Nisa.htm#يُوصِيكُمُ

For Verse 12: In that which your wives leave, your share is half if they have no child; but if they have a child, you get a fourth of that which they leave after payment of legacies that they may have bequeathed or debts. In that which you leave, their (your wifes) share is a fourth if you have no child; but if you leave a child, they get an eighth of that which you leave after payment of legacies that you may have bequeathed or debts. If the man or woman whose inheritance is in question has left neither ascendants nor descendants, but has left a brother or a sister, each one of the two gets a sixth; but if more than two, they share in a third, after payment of legacies he (or she) may have bequeathed or debts, so that no loss is caused (to anyone). This is a Commandment from Allah; and Allah is Ever All-Knowing, Most-Forbearing.

Explanation by Ibne Kathir (‘Imad Ad-Din, Isma’il bin ‘Umar bin Kathir b.702 Hijri in Basra, Syria- d.774 H/ b. 1301 Christian Era– d. 1373CE)

Share of the Spouses in the Inheritance

Allah says;

وَلَكُمْ نِصْفُ مَا تَرَكَ أَزْوَاجُكُمْ إِن لَّمْ يَكُن لَّهُنَّ وَلَدٌ فَإِن كَانَ لَهُنَّ وَلَدٌ فَلَكُمُ الرُّبُعُ مِمَّا تَرَكْنَ مِن بَعْدِ وَصِيَّةٍ يُوصِينَ بِهَا أَوْ دَيْنٍ                          

In that which your wives leave, your share is half if they have no child; but if they leave a child, you get a fourth of that which they leave after payment of legacies that they may have bequeathed or debts.

Allah says to the husband, you get half of what your wife leaves behind if she dies and did not have a child. If she had a child, you get one-fourth of what she leaves behind, after payment of legacies that she may have bequeathed, or her debts.

We mentioned before that payment of debts comes before fulfilling the will, and then comes the will, then the inheritance, and there is a consensus on this matter among the scholars. And the rule applies to the grandchildren as well as the children, even if they are great-grandchildren (or even further in generation).

Allah then said,

…  وَلَهُنَّ الرُّبُعُ مِمَّا تَرَكْتُمْ إِن لَّمْ يَكُن لَّكُمْ وَلَدٌ فَإِن كَانَ لَكُمْ وَلَدٌ فَلَهُنَّ الثُّمُنُ مِمَّا تَرَكْتُم مِّن بَعْدِ وَصِيَّةٍ تُوصُونَ بِهَا أَوْ دَيْنٍ…

In that which you leave, their (your wives) share is a fourth if you leave no child; but if you leave a child, they get an eighth of that which you leave after payment of legacies that you may have bequeathed or debts.

وَلَهُنَّ الرُّبُعُ مِمَّا تَرَكْتُمْ (In that which you leave, their (your wives) share is a fourth) and if there is more than one wife, they all share in the fourth, or one-eighth that the wife gets.

Earlier, we explained Allah’s statement, مِّن بَعْدِ وَصِيَّةٍ   (After payment of legacies).

The Meaning of Kalalah

Allah said,

… وَإِن كَانَ رَجُلٌ يُورَثُ كَلاَلَةً أَو امْرَأَةٌ …

If the man or woman whose inheritance is in question was left in Kalalah,

Kalalah is a derivative of Iklil; the crown that surrounds the head.

The meaning of Kalalah in this Ayah is that the person’s heirs come from other than the first degree of relative.

Ash-Sha`bi reported that;

when Abu Bakr As-Siddiq was asked about the meaning of Kalalah, he said, “I will say my own opinion about it, and if it is correct, then this correctness is from Allah. However, if my opinion is wrong, it will be my error and because of the evil efforts of Shaytan, and Allah and His Messenger have nothing to do with it.

Kalalah refers to the man who has neither descendants nor ascendants.”

When Umar became the Khalifah, he said, “I hesitate to contradict an opinion of Abu Bakr.”

This was recorded by Ibn Jarir and others.

In his Tafsir, Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ibn Abbas said,

“I was among the last persons to see Umar bin Al-Khattab, and he said to me, `What you said was the correct opinion.’

I asked, `What did I say?’

He said, `That Kalalah refers to the person who has no child or parents.”’

This is also the opinion of Ali bin Abi Talib, Ibn Mas`ud, Ibn Abbas, Zayd bin Thabit, Ash-Sha`bi, An-Nakhai, Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Qatadah, Jabir bin Zayd and Al-Hakam.

This is also the view of the people of Al-Madinah, Kufah, Basra, the Seven Fuqaha, the Four Imams and the majority of scholars of the past and present, causing some scholars to declare that there is a consensus on this opinion.

The Ruling Concerning Children of the Mother From Other Than the Deceased’s Father

Allah said,

... وَلَهُ أَخٌ أَوْ أُخْتٌ …

But has left a brother or a sister,

meaning, from his mother’s side, as some of the Salaf stated, including Sa`d bin Abi Waqqas.

Qatadah reported that this is the view of Abu Bakr As-Siddiq.

… فَلِكُلِّ وَاحِدٍ مِّنْهُمَا السُّدُسُ فَإِن كَانُوَاْ أَكْثَرَ مِن ذَلِكَ فَهُمْ شُرَكَاء فِي الثُّلُثِ …

Each one of the two gets a sixth; but if more than two, they share in a third.

There is a difference between the half brothers from the mother’s side and the rest of the heirs.

First, they get a share in the inheritance on account of their mother.

Second, the males and females among them get the same share.

Third, they only have a share in the inheritance when the deceased’s estate is inherited in Kalalah, for they do not have a share if the deceased has a surviving father, grandfather, child or grandchild.

Fourth, they do not have more than a third, no matter how numerous they were.

Allah’s statement,

… مِن بَعْدِ وَصِيَّةٍ يُوصَى بِهَآ أَوْ دَيْنٍ غَيْرَ مُضَآرٍّ …

After payment of legacies he (or she) may have bequeathed or debts, so that no loss is caused (to anyone).

means, let the will and testament be fair and free of any type of harm, without depriving some rightful heirs from all, or part of their share, or adding to the fixed portion that Allah ordained for some heirs. Indeed, whoever does this, will have disputed with Allah concerning His decision and division.

An authentic Hadith states,

إِنَّ اللهَ قَدْ أَعْطَى كُلَّ ذِي حَقَ حَقَّهُ فَلَا وَصِيَّةَ لِوَارِث

Allah has given each his fixed due right. Therefore, there is no will for a rightful inheritor.

… وَصِيَّةً مِّنَ اللّهِ وَاللّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَلِيمٌ ﴿١٢﴾

This is a Commandment from Allah; and Allah is Ever All-Knowing, Most Forbearing.

http://www.quran4u.com/Tafsir%20Ibn%20Kathir/004%20Nisa.htm#وَلَكُمْ

Notes by samia2010oct:

In Quran Verse 4:11 You know not which of them, whether your parents or your children, are nearest to you in benefit; (these fixed shares) are ordained by Allah.

All the members of a family may not have same economical status in society. Some are rich, some are poor and some are mediocre. What ever the case may be the share of assets given to relatives after the death of a blood relative must be given as set by Allah in Quran. Whatever the financial status of the deceased or the financial status of the living relatives of the deceased may be, the shares must be given as prescribed in the Holy Quran. After taking their share the rich may give their share or a part of their share to their poor relation. That they can do only after receiving their share.

It is Big Sin, Gunaah e Kabira, to change the Divine Laws of Inheritance written in Quran by changing the shares so to give more to one and deprive the other completely or to give more to one than the other.

For Big Sins, Gunaah e Kabira, there is the punishment of unbearable burning of whole body by Unending Fire.

The distribution in all cases given below in Verses 11- 12 is done after the payment of legacies the deceased may have bequeathed and after the payment of the deceased’s debts. So first of all the deceased debts are paid from his/ her assets, then the payment of legacies which the deceased may have bequeathed is done [For example if the deceased wrote a will in his life. It must be mentioned here that the will cannot be written for blood relations as the blood relations get prescribed shares in Quran 4:11- 12 and also the will cannot be written for more than one third of the total assets of the deceased. Quran 2:180]. And after that inheritance is distributed.

Verse 11: As regards the deceased children’s inheritance: to the male, is a portion equal to that of two portions of females;

If the deceased left only daughters, two or more, their share is two-thirds of the inheritance left;

If the deceased left only one daughter, her share is half of the inheritance left.

For parents of the deceased, a sixth share of inheritance to each parent. This is in case if the deceased left children;

If the deceased left no children, and the parents are the only heirs, the mother has a third while the father has two- thirds of the inheritance;

If the deceased left brothers or sisters, the mother has sixth, and the father has all the rest.

These fixed shares are ordained by Allah. And Allah is Ever All-Knower, All-Wise.

Verse 12: If a wife dies, the husband’s share is half if they have no child;

But if the wife leaves a child, the husband gets a fourth of that which she left.

If a husband dies, his wife gets a fourth if the husband left no child;

But if the deceased husband left a child, the wife gets an eighth of that which the deceased husband left.

If the man or woman whose inheritance is in question has left neither ascendants nor descendants (meaning left neither parents nor children), but left a brother or a sister, each one of the two gets a sixth;

But if deceased left more than two brothers or sisters, they all share in one- third, after payment of legacies he (or she) may have bequeathed or debts, so that no loss is caused to anyone. This is a Commandment from Allah; and Allah is Ever All-Knowing, Most-Forbearing.

There is a difference between the half brothers from the mother’s side and the rest of the heirs.

First, they get a share in the inheritance on account of their mother.

Second, the males and females among them get the same share.

Third, they only have a share in the inheritance when the deceased’s estate is inherited in Kalalah, for they do not have a share if the deceased has a surviving father, grandfather, child or grandchild.

Fourth, they do not have more than a third, no matter how numerous they were.

The inheritance includes children and the grand children and the great grand children as well, if they are already born at the time of the death of the deceased blood relation. Similarly not only parents are recipients of inheritance the grand parents if living and great grand parents if living are recipients as well.

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