Offrprings who are dutiful and kind to their parents are those from whom the best of their deeds are accepted and their evil deeds are overlooked. They shall be among the dwellers of Paradise— a promise of truth, which they have been promised. Quran 46:15-16

In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

Quran: Chapter 26, ‘Ha Meem’, Sura: 46 ‘Al- Ahqaf’ ‘The Curved Sand-hills’, Verse: 15- 16

Quran- Chapter 26, Sipara ‘Ha Meem’, Sura 46 ‘Al- Ahqaf’

Verse15: And We have enjoined on man to be dutiful and kind to his parents. His mother bears him with hardship. And she brings him forth with hardship, and the bearing of him, and the weaning of him is thirty months, till when he attains full strength and reaches forty years, he says: “My Lord! Grant me the power and ability that I may be grateful for Your Favour which You have bestowed upon me and upon my parents, and that I may do righteous good deeds, such as please You, and make my offspring good. Truly, I have turned to You in repentance, and truly, I am one of the Muslims (submitting to Your will)”.

[Difficult words: Enjoin: command, instruct.]

Verse 16: They are those from whom We shall accept the best of their deeds and overlook their evil deeds. (They shall be) among the dwellers of Paradise— a promise of truth, which they have been promised.

Explanation by Ibne Kathir: [The respected Imam, Abu Al-Fida’, `Imad Ad-Din Isma il bin ‘Umar bin Kathir Al-Qurashi Al-Busrawi– born in Busra 701 H– died in Damascus in 774 H// b. 1301 Christian Era– d. 1373CE. http://www.dar-us-salam.com/authors/hafiz-ibn-kathir.htm ]

{Disclaimer;  Explanation by Ibne Kathir is researched and written by 

http://quran4u.com/Tafsir%20Ibn%20Kathir/046%20Ahqaf.htm#صَّيْنَا  – I just copy-pasted from that site. I only added the date of births, date of deaths of the scholars and the places at which they took place. I also added some more text color than in the original article.}

Allah’s Advice about the Parents:

After mentioning that one must confess His Oneness, worship Him with sincerity, and remain upright in obeying Him, Allah follows that by giving instructions regarding the parents. These appear together in many places of the Qur’an, such as Allah’s saying,

وَقَضَى رَبُّكَ أَلاَّ تَعْبُدُواْ إِلاَّ إِيَّـهُ وَبِالْوَلِدَيْنِ إِحْسَـناً

Your Lord has decreed that you worship none but Him, and that you be dutiful to your parents. (17:23) [samia2010oct: Sura 17, Al-Isra’, The Journey by Night, 17:23]

Allah says,

أَنِ اشْكُرْ لِى وَلِوَلِدَيْكَ إِلَىَّ الْمَصِيرُ

Be grateful to Me and to your parents. Unto Me is the final destination. (31:14) [samia2010oct: Sura 31, Luqman, 31:14]

There are many other Ayat like this as well.

Here Allah says,

وَوَصَّيْنَا الْإِنسَانَ بِوَالِدَيْهِ إِحْسَانًا …

And We have enjoined on man to be dutiful and kind to his parents.

meaning, `We have commanded him to treat them well and show compassion towards them.’

Abu Dawud At-Tayalisi 

[samia2010oct: Sulaiman ibn Dawood ibn Al-Jarood, commonly known as Abu Dawud at-Tayalisi was born in 133 A.H. / 751 C.E. Died 204 A.H / 819 C.E. Ethnicity Iraqi. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abu_Dawud_at-Tayalisi ]

recorded from Sa`d bin Abi Waqqas,

[samia2010oct: Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas [Abu Ishaq] Comp.(RA) [1st Generation] Full name: Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas (Malik) b. Uhaib b. ‘Abd Manaf b. Zuhrah b. Kilab b. Murrah b. Ka’b. b. 39 BH/584 CE (Makkah) d. 55 AH/664 CE ((Al-‘Atiq) Medina)[ Natural ] Areas of interest: Recitation/Quran, Narrator [ ع – صحابة ], Fiqh, Commander http://muslimscholars.info/manage2.php?submit=scholar&ID=9  ]

may Allah be pleased with him, that his mother said to him:

“Hasn’t Allah commanded that you obey your parents Then I will not eat any food or drink any drink until you disbelieve in Allah.”

Thus she stubbornly abstained from eating and drinking, until they had to open her mouth with a stick. Then this Ayah was revealed,وَوَصَّيْنَا الْإِنسَانَ بِوَالِدَيْهِ إِحْسَانًا (And We have enjoined on man to be dutiful and kind to his parents).

This was also recorded by Muslim

[samia2010oct: Full name Imam Abu’l-Husain ‘Asakir-ud-Din Muslim b. Hajjaj al-Qushayri al-Naisaburi (202 H – 261H/ 817 CE- 874 CE)  http://www.sunnah.org/history/Scholars/Imam_muslim.htm ]

and the Sunan compilers, except for Ibn Majah.

[samia2010oct: Abu `Abdullah Muhammad bin Yazid bin `Abdullah titled as Ibn Majah was born in 209AH/824 AD in Qizwin, and died on 22nd of Ramadan al-Mubarik 273 AH/ 18th of February, 887 AD at Qizwin and was buried there. http://munirahmadmughal.hubpages.com/hub/Ibn-Majah-Muhaddith ]

Allah continues,

… حَمَلَتْهُ أُمُّهُ كُرْهًا …

His mother bears him with hardship.

which means that the mother suffers hardship because of her child, such as fatigue, sickness, vomiting, heaviness, distress, and other forms of hardship that the pregnant women suffer.

… وَوَضَعَتْهُ كُرْهًا …

And she delivers him with hardship.

meaning, she also delivers him with hardship, suffering the pains of labor and their severity.

… وَحَمْلُهُ وَفِصَالُهُ ثَلَاثُونَ شَهْرًا …

And (the period of) his gestation and weaning is thirty months,

Ali,

[samia2010oct: Ali ibn Abu Talib b. 600 CE, Makkah d. 661 CE / 40 AH, Kufa, Iraq.  http://ourislamonline.tripod.com/ali.htm ]

may Allah be pleased with him, used this Ayah along with the following two Ayat to prove that the minimum period of pregnancy (gestation) is six months:

وَفِصَالُهُ فِى عَامَيْنِ

And his weaning is in two years. (31:14)

and

وَالْوَلِدَتُ يُرْضِعْنَ أَوْلَـدَهُنَّ حَوْلَيْنِ كَامِلَيْنِ لِمَنْ أَرَادَ أَن يُتِمَّ الرَّضَاعَةَ

The mothers suckle their children two complete years — for those who desire to complete the term of suckling.  (2:233)

This is a strong and valid conclusion, and it was approved by Uthman

[samia2010oct: ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affaan [Dhun-Nurayn, Abu ‘Abdullah] Comp.(RA) [1st Generation] Full name: ‘Uthman Ibn ‘Affan b. Abi al-‘As b. Umayya b. ‘Abd Shams b. ‘Abd Manaf b. Qusayy b. Kilab b. Murrah b. 47 BH/579 CE (Ta’if) d. 35 AH/655 CE (Medinah)[ Martyred ] Places of stay: Makkah/Abyssinia/Medinah. Areas of interest: Tafsir/Quran, Narrator [ ع – صحابة ], Fiqh, Commander, Khalifah http://muslimscholars.info/manage2.php?submit=scholar&ID=4 ]

and a number of the Companions.

Muhammad bin Ishaq bin Yasar

[samia2010oct: Muḥammad ibn Isḥāq ibn Yasār ibn Khiyār or simply ibn Isḥaq Born in Medina about the year A.H. 85/ 704 CE, died in Baghdad around A.H. 150-159./ 761- 770 CE http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ibn_Ishaq ]

narrated from Ba`jah bin Abdullah Al-Juhani

[samia2010oct: B’jh bin ‘Abdullah. Follower(Tabi’) [3rd Generation]. d. 100 AH [ Natural ]. Areas of interest: Narrator[Grade:Thiqah] [ م قد ت س ق – ثقة ]. http://muslimscholars.info/manage2.php?submit=scholar&ID=10893 ]

that;

a man from his tribe (Juhaynah) married a woman from Juhaynah. She delivered a baby after six months. So her husband went to Uthman, may Allah be pleased with him, and told him about that. Thus, Uthman summoned her. When she was getting dressed, her sister started crying. She asked her:

“Why do you cry? By Allah, no one has ever approached me (for sexual relations) of Allah’s creation except him (my husband). So let Allah decree (for me) as He wills.”

When she was brought before Uthman, he commanded that she be stoned to death (for adultery).

Ali heard of this, came to Uthman, and said: “What are you doing?”

He (Uthman) said: “She delivered after six months! Can this ever happen?” `

Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, said: “Don’t you read the Qur’an?”

He said: “Yes, of course!”

He (Ali) then said:

`Haven’t you heard Allah’s saying, وَحَمْلُهُ وَفِصَالُهُ ثَلَاثُونَ شَهْرًا (and his gestation and weaning is thirty months), and; حَوْلَيْنِ كَامِلَيْن(two complete years) (2:233) (Subtracting the two numbers) we are only left with six months.”

Uthman, may Allah be pleased with him, said: “By Allah, I did not see that! Bring the woman back.”

But they found that she had already been killed.

Ba`jah continued:

“By Allah, no two crows and no two eggs are more similar than that child turned out to be to his father!

When his father saw that he said, `By Allah! This is my son without any doubt.’

Later on, Allah afflicted him with a skin abscess in his face (because of his false accusation to his wife). It kept eating him up until he died.”

Ibn Abi Hatim

[samia2010oct: Abu Muhammad Abd al-Rahman bin Abi Hatim Muhammad bin Idris al-Razi al-Hanzali, well-known under the name Ibn Abi Hatim, born in al-Rayy (near modern Tehran) in the year 240 A.H./854 C.E. and died in the same city in the year 327 A.H./938 C.E. http://www.sunnipress.com/new/ma/ibnabihatem.htm ]

related from his father that Farwah bin Abi Al-Maghra’

[samia2010oct: Frwh bin Abi al-Mghra’a [Abu al-Qasim] 3rd Century AH [10th generation] d. 225 AH ()[ Natural ]. Places of stay: Kufa. Areas of interest: Narrator[Grade:Sadooq] [ خ ت – صدوق ] http://muslimscholars.info/manage2.php?submit=scholar&ID=30207 ]

told them that Ali bin Mushir

[samia2010oct: ‘Ali bin Ms’hr. Succ. (Taba’ Tabi’) [8th generation] d. 189 AH ()[ Natural ]. Places of stay: al-Kufa. Areas of interest: Narrator[Grade:Thiqah] [ ع – ثقة ] http://muslimscholars.info/manage2.php?submit=scholar&ID=20345 ]

narrated to them from Dawud bin Abi Hind,

[samia2010oct: Da’ud bin Abi Hnd [Abu Muhammad] Follower(Tabi’) [5th generation]. d. 140 AH or before ()[ Natural ]. Places of stay: al-Basra. Areas of interest: Narrator[Grade:Thiqah] [ خ ت م 4 – ثقة ] http://muslimscholars.info/manage2.php?submit=scholar&ID=11585 ]

who narrated from Ikrimah

[samia2010oct: ]

that Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said,

“When a woman delivers after nine months, the baby will only need twenty-one months of suckling. When she delivers after seven months, the baby will need twenty-three months of suckling. When she delivers after six months, the baby will need two full years of suckling, because Allah says, وَحَمْلُهُ وَفِصَالُهُ ثَلَاثُونَ شَهْرًا حَتَّى إِذَا بَلَغَ أَشُدَّهُ  (and his gestation and weaning is thirty months, till when he attains full strength).”

… حَتَّى إِذَا بَلَغَ أَشُدَّهُ …

till when he attains full strength,

meaning, he becomes strong, youthful, and attains full ability.

… وَبَلَغَ أَرْبَعِينَ سَنَةً …

and reaches forty years,

meaning, his complete intellect, understanding, and patience reach the level of maturity.

It has also been said that usually one will not change his ways once he reaches the age of forty.

… قَال رَبِّ أَوْزِعْنِي …

he says: “My Lord! Grant me the power and ability,

meaning, `inspire me.’

… أَنْ أَشْكُرَ نِعْمَتَكَ الَّتِي أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيَّ وَعَلَى وَالِدَيَّ  وَأَنْ أَعْمَلَ صَالِحًا تَرْضَاهُ …

that I may be grateful for Your favor which You have bestowed upon me and upon my parents, and that I may do righteous good deeds, such as please You,

meaning, in the future.

… وَأَصْلِحْ لِي فِي ذُرِّيَّتِي …

and make my offspring good.

meaning, my offspring and descendants.

… إِنِّي تُبْتُ إِلَيْكَ وَإِنِّي مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ ﴿١٥﴾

Truly, I have turned to You in repentance, and truly, I am one of the Muslims.

This contains an instruction for anyone who reaches forty years of age to renew his repentance and turn to Allah with strong resolution.

Allah then says,

أُوْلَئِكَ الَّذِينَ نَتَقَبَّلُ عَنْهُمْ أَحْسَنَ مَا عَمِلُوا وَنَتَجاوَزُ عَن سَيِّئَاتِهِمْ فِي أَصْحَابِ الْجَنَّةِ …

Those are the ones from whom We shall accept the best of what they did and overlook their evil deeds. (They shall be) among the dwellers of Paradise.

meaning, those to whom applies the above description — those who repent to Allah, turn back to Him, and rectify their shortcomings through repentance and seeking forgiveness – those are the ones from whom We will accept the best of what they did and overlook their evil deeds. Many of their errors will be forgiven and Allah will accept from them a modest amount of deeds.

فِي أَصْحَابِ الْجَنَّة (among the dwellers of Paradise),

which means that they will be among the dwellers of Paradise. That is Allah’s ruling concerning them, as He has promised for those who repent and turn to Him.

Thus, He says,

… وَعْدَ الصِّدْقِ الَّذِي كَانُوا يُوعَدُونَ ﴿١٦﴾

That is the promise of truth that they had been promised.

http://www.quran4u.com/Tafsir%20Ibn%20Kathir/046%20Ahqaf.htm#وَوَصَّيْنَا

Notes by samia2010oct:

In the above verses 15 and 16 we are told about good off-springs. The parents of these offspring are also faithful and good people. We are told these good type of off-springs are obedient, thankful and good Muslims. The good off-springs realize the difficulties their parents endured in bringing them up specially their mothers. Children must be nice to their mothers three times more than to their fathers. These good type of off-springs are dutiful and kind to their parents as per Allah’s Orders. Parents of these types of offspring are happy and satisfied about their children. In these verses we know what good offspring are in Allah’s Eyes? By acting on Allah’s Orders and by being good to their parents what rewards do they get? Allah promises Paradise for them. Also He SubHanWaTaala promises that the best deeds, of the off-springs who are kind and dutiful to their parents, will be accepted by Allah and their evil deeds will be overlooked. The evil deeds of the kind and dutiful off-springs will be overlooked only because they were kind and dutiful to their parents.

All calculations and countings are made in Islamic Lunar months.

Thanks for being with me. May Allah allow all of us to do good. Aameen.

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