History’s Timeline.

Dear friends,

Assalaam alaikum,

This page is not yet complete. I’m still working on it, but you can still go through it.

Thanks for being with me.

Allah hafiz,

Samia.

BCE = Before Christian EraCE = Christian EraAH = After Hijra

300,000 years BCE ————– The Middle Paleolithic and the Middle Stone Age broadly spanned from 300,000 to 30,000 years ago. During this time period Homo neanderthalensis thrived in Europe.  [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_Paleolithic] [Added between Jun 2011- Feb 2013]

2.2 million years BCE ————– The oldest stone tool in the world, going back to 2.2 million years old, has been found at Rabat, about fifteen miles away from Rawalpindi, Pakistan, thus breaking the African record. [History Through The Centuries by Professor Dr. Ahmad Hasan Dani   http://www.heritage.gov.pk/html_Pages/history1.html[Added between Jun 2011- Feb 2013]

200,000 years BCE ————– Mitochondrial Eve is generally estimated to have lived around 200,000 years ago, most likely in East Africa. In the field of human genetics, Mitochondrial Eve refers to the matrilineal “MRCA” (most recent common ancestor). In other words, this was the woman from whom all living humans today descend, on their mother’s side, and through the mothers of those mothers and so on, back until all lines converge on one person. Because it is generally passed from mother to offspring without recombination, all mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in every living person is directly descended from hers by definition. Mitochondrial Eve is the female counterpart of Y-chromosomal Adam, the patrilineal most recent common ancestor, although they lived thousands of years apart. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_genetics] [Added between Jun 2011- Feb 2013]

195,000years BCE ————- The earliest anatomically modern humans appeared around 195,000 years ago. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_Paleolithic[Added between Jun 2011- Feb 2013]

Around 60,000 years BCE ————– It appears that the first families walked out of Africa and headed to Australia.[Ancient Civilisations (2006)] [Added between Jun 2011- Feb 2013]

50,000 years BCE ————– The Middle Paleolithic/Middle Stone Age was succeeded by the Upper Paleolithic subdivision which first began between 50,000 and 40,000 years ago. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_Paleolithic[Added between Jun 2011- Feb 2013]

About 50,000 BCE ————– At Sangho Cave in Mardan District, Pakistan man improved his technology for working on Quartz in order to chase the animal in closed valleys. [History Through The Centuries by Professor Dr. Ahmad Hasan Dani  http://www.heritage.gov.pk/html_Pages/history1.html[Added between Jun 2011-Feb 2013]

About 14,000 years BCE ————– Pottery was invented by people living in Japan, China and Korea during the last Ice Age about 14,000 years ago. Pots allowed people to boil foods – such as nuts and shellfish to make them edible. [BBC – A History of the World – Jomon pot] (bbc.co.uk/history[Added between Jun 2011- Feb 2013]

Around 12,000 years BCE ago ————– The second wave set off from Africa to inhabit Asia, Europe and the Americas. [Ancient Civilisations] [Added between Jun 2011- Feb 2013]

Eight millennium BCE ————– The first settled life began in the eight millennium B.C. when the first village was found at Mehergarh in the Sibi districts of Balochistan, Pakistan comparable with the earliest villages of Jericho in Palestine and Jarmo in Iraq. Here their mud houses have been excavated and agricultural land known for the cultivation of maize and wheat. Man began to live together in settled social life and used polished stone tools, made pots and pans, beads and other ornaments. His taste for decoration developed and he began to paint his vessels, jars, bowls, drinking glasses, dishes and plates. It was now that he discovered the advantage of using metals for his tools and other objects of daily use. [History Through The Centuries by Professor Dr. Ahmad Hasan Dani  http://www.heritage.gov.pk/html_Pages/history1.html ]  [Added between Jun 2011- Feb 2013]

Seventh millennium BCE ————– For the first time in seventh millennium B.C. man in Sindh, Balochistan, Punjab and Khaibar Pakhtunkhwa Provinces of Pakistan learnt to use bronze. From the first revolution in his social, cultural and economic life, he established trade relation with the people of Turkamenistan, Uzbekistan, Iran and the Arab world. He not only specialized in painting different designs on pottery, made varieties of pots and used cotton and wool but also made terracotta figurines and imported precious stones from Afghanistan and Central Asia. This early bronze age culture spread out in the country side of Sindh, Balochistan, Punjab and Khaibar Pakhtunkhwa Provinces of Pakistan http://www.heritage.gov.pk/html_Pages/history1.html  ]  [Added between Jun 2011- Feb 2013]

3rd- 2nd millnnium BCE ————– In Pakistan the remains of the Takshakas (The Oldest rulers of Taxila) of Bronze Age (3rd-2nd millnnium B.C.) have been found at the bottom of the Hathial Mound on the bank of Tamra-nala, at the edge of the Mathial spur about half a mile to the north-east of Taxila Museum. Their painted pottery, polished stone tools, beads and bone implements, also found at another local site, called Saraikhola on the bank of the Kala rivulet, a few miles to the south-west of the Museum,a little distance from the main National Highway, belong to a cultural period earlier than the mature Indus Civilization of Mohen-jo-Daro fame. [Guide to Historic Taxila by Professor Dr. Ahmad Hasan Dani  http://www.heritage.gov.pk/html_Pages/history1.html ] [Added between Jun 2011- Feb 2013]

Second millennium BCE————– The Aryans arrived in Taxila, Pakistan, around the middle of the second millennium B.C.and gave rise to the regional name Gandhara (meaning the land of Fragrance), continued to rule here until the time of the Indian epic Mahabharata.  [Guide to Historic Taxila by Professor Dr. Ahmad Hasan Dani  http://www.heritage.gov.pk/html_Pages/history1.html [Added between Jun 2011- Feb 2013]

Around 60,000 years BCE ago ———— it appears that the first families walked out of Africa and headed to Australia. [Ancient Civilisations (2006)] [Added between Jun 2011- Feb 2013]

About 14,000 years BCE ago ————– Pottery was invented by people living in Japan, China and Korea during the last Ice Age about 14,000 years ago. Pots allowed people to boil foods – such as nuts and shellfish to make them edible. [BBC – A History of the World – Jomon pot] ( bbc.co.uk/history [Added between Jun 2011- Feb 2013] 

Around 12,000 BCE years ago—— – the second wave set off to inhabit Asia, Europe and the Americas. [ Ancient Civilisations ] [Added between Jun 2011- Feb 2013]

9000 BCE ————– Archaeological research at Tell Abu Hureyra, an ancient village on the Euphrates River in Syria, 120 km east of Aleppo, has added important new knowledge on how early farming developed. The earliest occupation of the village was in 9000 BC. A very large amount of seeds and grains were found, including large quantities of wheat and some grains of barley and rye; [www.edunetconnect.com – [ schoolmaster@baxter.net [Added between Jun 2011- Feb 2013]

Around 5000 years BCE ago ————– The chain of independent city-states lining the River Nile united to form one long, thin country ruled by one king, or pharaoh. Almost instantly a highly distinctive culture developed. For almost 30 centuries Egypt remained the foremost nation in the Mediterranean world. [Ancient Egypt and the Modern World By Dr Joyce Tyldesley (BBC Publications, 2010) bbc.co.uk/history ] [Added between Jun 2011- Feb 2013]

1500 BCE ————- The clepsydra, a simple vase marked with divisions that measured water flowing out of a small spout near the base was used (to measure time) in Egypt before 1500 BCE. (Chapter 1, Home, page 14, Clocks) http://muqith.files.wordpress.com/2012/06/1001inventions-muslimheritageinourworld.pdf [Added on 15 Jun 2014]

776 BCE ————— Traditionally it has always been said that the Games started at Olympia in 776 BC, about the time that Homer was born. [bbc.co.uk/history [Added between Jun 2011- Feb 2013]

724 BCE ————– In 724 BC a longer, there-and-back race, the diaulos, was introduced, followed four years later by the long-distance race, the dolichos, a race of perhaps 12 laps. The emphasis on running in the early years of the Olympics may reflect the perceived basic requirements for a fit soldier. Boxing, wrestling, and the pancration (the ‘all-power’ race, combining all types of physical attack) soon followed, along with the pentathlon, and horse-and-chariot racing.   [bbc.co.uk/history [Added between Jun 2011- Feb 2013]

720BCE ————– Long-distance race, the dolichos, a race of perhaps 12 laps introduced. [bbc.co.uk/history [Added between Jun 2011- Feb 2013]

600BCE ————– Milo of Croton, in southern Italy, was Olympic champion in the men’s wrestling six times in the sixth century, besides winning once in the Olympic boy’s wrestling, and gaining seven victories in the Pythian Games. He is said to have carried his own statue, or even a bull, into the Olympic arena, and to have performed party tricks such as holding a pomegranate without squashing it and getting people to prize open his hand – nobody could. [bbc.co.uk/history [Added between Jun 2011- Feb 2013]

———————- The city of Taxila, Pakistan, began to grow from 6th century B.C. onward when Achaemenian kings by name Cyrus and Darius joined this city by road and postal services with their own capital at Persepolis in Iran. Here one can see the Aryan village at Hatial mound lying above the pre-Aryan bronze age capital of Takshakas (Serpent worshippers). One can also visit the Achaemenian city at Bhir mound, where old bazaars and royal palace, with long covered drain, have been discovered. [History Through The Centuries by Professor Dr. Ahmad Hasan Dani  http://www.heritage.gov.pk/html_Pages/history1.html[Added between Jun 2011- Feb 2013]

——————— Panini, the great grammarian of 6th  century B.C. Kotelia, the famous writer of the Arthsastra, a book on political science, and the great physician Charaka. [Guide to Historic Taxila by Professor Dr. Ahmad Hasan Dani  http://www.heritage.gov.pk/html_Pages/history1.html  [Added between Jun 2011- Feb 2013]

500BCE ————– A mule race was introduced in Olympia, Greece, but it was not generally popular. The great Rhodian athlete Diagoras won at all four of the major Games (Olympic, Pythian, Nemean and Isthmian). His three sons and two of his grandsons were also Olympic champions. Superhuman heavyweights were regarded with special awe. Cleomedes, an Olympic boxing champion, killed an opponent at the Olympics, was disqualified, went mad and smashed up a school. The Greeks regularly explained abnormal feats and states of mind by saying that something divine, or a god, had entered whoever was affected in this way, and Cleomedes ended up receiving semi-divine honours as a hero. The person who most idealised the Olympics was Pindar, from Thebes, midway between Delphi and Athens. Pindar composed odes for victors at the Olympic and other Games, comparing their achievements to those of the great heroes of the past – such as Heracles or Achilles – thus raising them to an almost divine level. [bbc.co.uk/history [Added between Jun 2011- Feb 2013]

521 BCE ————– Taxila, Pakistan, become a part of the Achaemenian Empire at least from the time of Darius I ( 521 – 486 B.C. ), when the last local rulers, Pukkusati, was overthrown and Taxila become a seat of the Achaemenian province of Gandhara. [Guide to Historic Taxila by Professor Dr. Ahmad Hasan Dani  http://www.heritage.gov.pk/html_Pages/history1.html[Added between Jun 2011- Feb 2013]

520BCE ————– A race while wearing armour was introduced in Olympia, Greece. [bbc.co.uk/history ]  [Added between Jun 2011- Feb 2013]

420 BCE ————– The great historian of the Peloponnesian War, Thucydides, tells how in 420 BC the Spartans violated the truce by attacking a fort and dispatching hoplites, and they were therefore banned from the Games. [bbc.co.uk/history ]

338 BCE ————– In the land which is now Pakistan, at that time the Gandharan men are depicted at the tomb of Artaxarxes III (died 338 B.C. ) Guide to Historic Taxila by Professor Dr. Ahmad Hasan Dani  http://www.heritage.gov.pk/html_Pages/history1.html 

332 BCE ————– Then, in 332 BC, the arrival of Alexander the Great heralded the end of the Egyptian way of life. The unique culture was quickly buried beneath successive layers of Greek, Roman and Arabic tradition, and all knowledge of Egypt’s glorious past was lost. Only the decaying stone monuments, their hieroglyphic texts now unreadable, survived as silent witnesses to a long lost civilisation. [Ancient Egypt and the Modern World By Dr Joyce Tyldesley (BBC Publications, 2010) bbc.co.uk/history ]

331 BCE ————– In the land which is now Pakistan, at that time the Gandhara soldiers were recruited by the Achaemenians and they even fought on the side of Darius III in the battle of Gaugamela (331 B.C.) against Alexander the great. [Guide to Historic Taxila by Professor Dr. Ahmad Hasan Dani  http://www.heritage.gov.pk/html_Pages/history1.html]

326 BCE ————– Alexander of Macedonia came to Taxila, Pakistan, in 326 B.C. where he was welcomed by the local king Ambhi in his palace at Bhir mound. It is here as well as at Bhira in Jhelum district, Pakistan, that Alexander’s remains can be seen. However, he fought the greatest battles on the bank of the Jhelum river opposite the present village of Jalalpur Sharif against Porus, the head of the heroic Puru tribe, whose descendents still supply military personnel to the Pakistan army. Alexander’s battle place was at Mong, where he founded a new city, called Nikea, the city of victory. The other city which he founded was called Bucaphela after the name of his horse that died here. However, the most captivating site is at Jalalpur Sharif, laying on the bank of rivulet Gandaria, perhaps Sikanaria, where Alexander’s monument has now been built on the spot where he stopped for about two months before launching his attack on Porus. [History Through The Centuries by Professor Dr. Ahmad Hasan Dani  http://www.heritage.gov.pk/html_Pages/history1.html]

———————- The Achaemenian and Alexander’s contacts with Pakistan are very important from the point of view of educational and Cultural history. The Achaemenian brought the learning and science of Mesopotamia Civilization that enriched the University of Taxila. They also introduced their administrative system here, on the basis of which the famous book on political science, called Arthasastra was written in Sanskrit language in Taxila by Kautilya, known as Chanakya, the teacher of Chandra Gupta Maurya. It is this book that was adapted for the administrative of the Mauryan empire. On the basis of Achaemenian currency the Mauryan punch marked coins. So well known in Taxila, were produced. It is their Aramaic writing, used by Achaemenian clerks, that led to the development of Kharoshti in Pakistan and trade with the Semitic world that created the Brahmi writing in India. On the other hand Alexander brought Greek knowledge and science to Taxila and introduced Greek type of coin currency. It is Taxila that philosophers and men of learning of the two countries met and developed science, mathematics and astronomy. Above all Alexander left behind large number of Greeks in Central Asia, who founded the Bactrian Greek kingdom in mid-third century B.C. It is the descendants of these Bactrian Greeks who later advanced in to Pakistan and built up the Greek kingdom here and built up their own city at Sirkap in Taxila. This is the second well planned city in Pakistan. The Greeks introduced their language, art and religion in the country of Gandhara, where ruled thirteen Greek kings and queens. Their language lasted more than five hundred years and their art and religion had considerable influence on the flourish of Gandhara Civilization. [History Through The Centuries by Professor Dr. Ahmad Hasan Dani  http://www.heritage.gov.pk/html_Pages/history1.html]

305- 306 BCE ————– There was further feather added to the cap of Chandragupta when Seleucus Nikator, in 305-06 B.C. warred with him and “entered into an alliance and marriage affinity with him.” Several Mauryan princes were associated with the city of Taxila,Pakistan. [Guide to Historic Taxila by Professor Dr. Ahmad Hasan Dani  http://www.heritage.gov.pk/html_Pages/history1.html

300 BCE ————– Taxila, Pakistan, is located on the bank of a local river,called Tamra-nala, correctly Dharama-nala (Dharma meaning “Buddhist moral law) –a name derived from a nearby Buddhist stupa, called Dharmarajika stupa, the first of its kind erected by the Mauryan emperor Asoka about the middle of the 3rd century B.C. [Guide to Historic Taxila by Professor Dr. Ahmad Hasan Dani  http://www.heritage.gov.pk/html_Pages/history1.html ]

223- 187 BCE ————– In the time of the second Mauryan emperor Bindusara, prince Susina was appointed viceroy and then Asoka was sent twice to pacify the Taxilans. In the time of Asoka prince Kunala was appointed viceroy. Then followed Dasaratha and his son Samprati and finally came Salisukha identified with Sophagsenus, with whom Antiochue III(223-187 B.C.) renewed his friendship and left him strong in Taxila, Pakistan. [Guide to Historic Taxila by Professor Dr. Ahmad Hasan Dani  http://www.heritage.gov.pk/html_Pages/history1.html ]

200BCE —————— Leonidas of Rhodes, Greece, won all three running events at four consecutive Olympics. [bbc.co.uk/history ]

100 CE ——————- Galen, physician and polymath attacked athletics as unnatural and excessive. He thought that athletes eat too much, sleep too much and put their bodies through too much. [bbc.co.uk/history ]

401 CE ——————- Hazrat Salman Farsi (R.A.) was born in 401 CE as we read the following:

{Hazrat Salman Farsi (R.A.) died in either 31 or 34 A.H, at the age of 250 years, during the caliphate of Uthman RadiAllah Anhu, at Ctesiphon.} http://www.darulihsan.com/index.php/articles/articles-2/biographies/item/3372-hazrat-salman-farsi-ra  [Added on 20-Mar-2013]

500 CE ——————- Taxila, now in Pakistan, was destroyed by the Huns in 5th century A.D. [Guide to Historic Taxila by Professor Dr. Ahmad Hasan Dani  http://www.heritage.gov.pk/html_Pages/history1.html]

              ———————– The Apocryphon Johannis Papyrus dating to this time (500 CE) is claimed by some to be written by Apostle John and was first discovered in Cairo in 1896 CE. http://www.telusplanet.net/public/dgarneau/euro41.htm [Added on 20-Mar-2013]

501 CE —————- Symmachus bishop of Rome (498-514) is charged with pagan practice, unchaste and misuse of church property. Many clergy withdrew from communion and the King appointed the Bishop of Altinum to preside until the charges are resolved.  Symmachus is imprisoned in St. Peters. http://www.telusplanet.net/dgarneau/euro41.htm   [Added on 12 Mar 2014]

555 CE ——————– Khadijah bint Khuwaylid, a Qurayshi woman of excellent character was born in Makkah. {When the Messenger of Allah was twenty-five, he married Khadijah bint Khuwaylid, a Qurayshi woman of excellent character who was then forty years of age. http://ourislamonline.tripod.com/2histislam.htm[added on 10 Mar 2014]

568 CE ————— The Langobard tribe originated in Scandinavia. The Lombard’s (Langobards) under King Alboin who settled in the Danube this century penetrated into Northern Italy, Austria-Hungary and established Pavia as their capital. Their army included 20,000 Germanic-Saxon and some Slavs. These Germanic speaking Aryan (Arya) slaughtered the Native inhabitants and seized their lands. They gradually expanded south towards Ravenna and Rome.  Gradually they converted to Romanism and they took Roman titles and names and accepted the Roman Catholic Church.  They however are never trusted by the Roman Catholic Church.  They however retained their Arian law independent from Roman law. The Lombards over ran Gaul remaining for nearly two centuries. [ http://www.telusplanet.net/dgarneau/euro41.htm ]  [Added on 12 Mar 2014]

570 CE————– Muhammad Peace Be Upon Him, The Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) was born on Monday, 12 Rabi’ al-Awwal, in the Year of the Elephant (570 C.E.) in Makkah. http://ourislamonline.tripod.com/2histislam.htm

             ————– 570 CE was called by the Arabs ‘the year of the Elephant’ because in this year Abrahah al-Ashram, [Abraha was the viceroy of Negus, the King of Abyssinia, who ruled over the Yemen] went from Yemen to Makkah to destroy the Ka’bah.  http://ourislamonline.tripod.com/1histislam.htm   [added on 11 Mar 2014]

573 CE ————– Hadrat Abu Bakr, as-Siddiq, (R.A.) was born in 573 A.D. at Makkah.

http://ourislamonline.tripod.com/abubakr.htm

              ————– Hadrat Uthman (R.A.) was born in 573 A.C. http://ourislamonline.tripod.com/usmanghani.htm

575 CE ————– Benedict I (575-579) a Roman is elected bishop of Rome and is clearly subordinate to the bishop of Constantinople.

King Childeber II (575-596) son King Sigibert I (561-575) ruled Austrasia the district north East of Neustria (Paris, France).

http://www.telusplanet.net/dgarneau/euro41.htm [Added on 28Aug2013]

576 CE——— When the Messenger of Allah was six years old, his mother, Aminah, died. http://ourislamonline.tripod.com/2histislam.htm 

578 CE————- When the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) was eight, Abdul-Muttalib also died. The Messenger of Allah then went to live with his uncle, Abu Talib, the full brother of his father, Abdullah. http://ourislamonline.tripod.com/2histislam.htm

579 CE ————-  The Lombard army (who came from Scandinavia) began to siege Rome and Emperor Justin II (565-578) sent relief at the request of the bishop of Rome but it is short-lived.  The siege intensified and famine spread throughout the city. Pelagius II (579-590) a Roman Goth is elected bishop of Rome while the city is under siege.   His elevation however must be confirmed by the Emperor of Constantinople.  This bishop of Rome referred to the bishop of Constantinople as the Universal Patriarch (Pope) and himself as the servant of God’s servants. http://www.telusplanet.net/dgarneau/euro41.htm [Added on 12 Mar 2014]

583 CE———— Umar (R.A.) was born in 583 A.C., about forty years before the great Hijrah. He belonged to “‘Adi” family of Quraish tribe. In the 8th generation, his lineage joins with the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam). Abu Hafs was his patronymic name and “al-Faruq” his title given by the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam).  http://ourislamonline.tripod.com/umer.htm

584 CE————– When Muhammad PBUH was about fourteen years old, the Fijar War broke out between the tribes of Quraysh and Qays. http://ourislamonline.tripod.com/2histislam.htm

587 CE, ———————- Zaynab bint Jahsh al-Asadiyah, The Mother of the Faithful, was born in the year 587 CE as we read in the book ‘Women around The Messenger’, quote; “Zaynab bint Jahsh al-Asadiyah, The Mother of the Faithful, died in the year 20 H. at the age of fifty three.” [page 119, Women around The Messenger /Muhammad Ali Qutb- Riyadh, 2008 ISBN Hard Cover: 978-603-501-022-1 http://www.iiph.com.sa ]} [Added on 10 Mar 2014]

595 CE———————— When the Messenger of Allah was twenty-five, he married Khadijah bint Khuwaylid, a Qurayshi woman of excellent character who was then forty years of age. http://ourislamonline.tripod.com/2histislam.htm

600 CE————————- Hadrat Ali (R.A.) was born some thirty years after the birth of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu ‘alaiha wa Salam). http://ourislamonline.tripod.com/ali.htm

              ————————Abu Hurayrah(r.a.) was born in 600 CE. {Abu Hurayrah(r.a.) died in the year 59 A.H. when he was seventy-eight years old. Muslims owe a debt of gratitude to Abu Hurayrah(r.a.) for helping to preserve and transmit the valuable legacy of the Prophet Peace Be Upon Him, may God bless him and grant him peace. http://www.darulihsan.com/index.php/articles/general/biographies/3307-abu-hurairah-ra-the-narrator-of-the-most-hadith-biography   [ added on 11 March 2014]

              —————————– Zaynab Bint Muhammad, Prophet Muhammad’s eldest daughter was born 10 years before Muhammad’s (Peace Be Upon Him) appointment as Messenger. Page 87. [therefore Zaynab’s year of birth is calculated as 600 CE. when Khadijah (RA) was 45 years and Muhammad Peace Be Upon Him was 30 years of age] Reference: Golden Stories of Sayyida Khadijah (RA) mother of the believers, by Abdul Malik Mujahid, translated by Syed Ahmed Faisal Nahri- Maktaba Dar-us-Salam 2012, ISBN: 978-603-500-118-2 Website www.darussalamksa.com email Darussalam@awalnet.net.sa and info@darussalam.com  [ added on 11 March 2014]

603 CE ——————- Ruqayya Bint Muhammad, Prophet Muhammad’s (PBUH) second daughter, was born. [birth of Ruqayya (RA) is calculated as we are told in Page 123. Golden Stories of Sayyida Khadijah (RA) mother of the believers, that she died at age 21 just after the Battle of Badr which took place in 2H.] Reference: Golden Stories of Sayyida Khadijah (RA) mother of the believers, by Abdul Malik Mujahid, translated by Syed Ahmed Faisal Nahri- Maktaba Dar-us-Salam 2012, ISBN: 978-603-500-118-2 Website www.darussalamksa.com email Darussalam@awalnet.net.sa and info@darussalam.com  [Added on 11 March 2014]

604 CE ——————– Umm Kulthum Bint Muhammad, the third daughter of Prophet Muhammad PBUH was born in 604 CE. [Birth of Umm Kulthum is calculated to be in 604 CE as we are told in Page 124. of ‘Golden Stories of Sayyida Khadijah (RA) mother of the believers’, that ‘Six years before the appointment of Muhammad PBUH as Messenger of God, Khadijah (RA) had given birth to another daughter, whom he called Umm Kulthum.’] Page 124. Reference: Golden Stories of Sayyida Khadijah (RA) mother of the believers, by Abdul Malik Mujahid, translated by Syed Ahmed Faisal Nahri- Maktaba Dar-us-Salam 2012, ISBN: 978-603-500-118-2 Website www.darussalamksa.com email Darussalam@awalnet.net.sa and info@darussalam.com  [Added on 11 March 2014]

                       ——————- Muad ibn Jabal, Companion of the Prophet Muhammad Peace Be Upon Him, was born in 604 CE, as we read in “Women Around The Messenger”, quote, “Muad ibn Jabal died during the spread of the plague in Syria, in the year 17 H. or shortly thereafter, according to the opinion of most scholars. He was aged thirty- four.” 17 H is 638 CE [page 255, Women around The Messenger /Muhammad Ali Qutb- Riyadh, Translator Abdur Rafi Adewale Imam. Edition 2 (2008) International Islamic Publishing House ISBN Hard Cover: 978-603-501-022-1 http://www.iiph.com.sa[added 10 Mar 2014]

605 CE————— When the Messenger of Allah was thirty-five, the Quraysh decided to rebuild the Ka’bah. The Messenger of Allah was present at the Hilf al-Fudul. http://ourislamonline.tripod.com/2histislam.htm

             ————– Fatima, the daughter of Muhammad Peace Be Upon Him was born. [page 326, Women around The Messenger /Muhammad Ali Qutb- Riyadh, Translator Abdur Rafi Adewale Imam. Edition 2 (2008) International Islamic Publishing House ISBN Hard Cover: 978-603-501-022-1 http://www.iiph.com.sa ] [added on 10 Mar 2014]

607 CE —————- Muhammad Peace Be Upon Him started coming to cave Hira for seclusion and meditation in 607 CE.   [The year 607 CE is calculated as we are told in page 54 of ‘Golden Stories of Sayyida Khadijah (RA) mother of the believers’, that ‘Muhammad PBUH was appointed Messenger of God in the third year of seclusion in cave Hira‘.] Reference: Golden Stories of Sayyida Khadijah (RA) mother of the believers, by Abdul Malik Mujahid, translated by Syed Ahmed Faisal Nahri- Maktaba Dar-us-Salam 2012, ISBN: 978-603-500-118-2 Website www.darussalamksa.com email Darussalam@awalnet.net.sa and info@darussalam.com  [Added on 11 March 2014]

610 CE ————– The Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) was forty when the first glimpses of light and of his future happiness appeared. The time of his mission approached. It had always been the Divine practice that whenever the darkness had become too intense and the wickedness widespread, a Messenger appeared. http://ourislamonline.tripod.com/2histislam.htm 

              ————— after 15 years of Muhammad’s (Peace Be Upon Him) marriage to Khadijah (RA), he was appointed by God as His Messenger. Page 42. Reference: Golden Stories of Sayyida Khadija (RA) mother of the believers, by Abdul Malik Mujahid, translated by Syed Ahmed Faisal Nahri- Maktaba Dar-us-Salam 2012, ISBN: 978-603-500-118-2 Website www.darussalamksa.com email Darussalam@awalnet.net.sa and info@darussalam.com   [Added on 11 Mar 2014]

                ——————— Muhammad PBUH was appointed Messenger of God in the third year of seclusion in cave Hira. First Wahy was given on Monday, August 10, 610 CE, the 21st night of Ramadan. Page 54. Reference: Golden Stories of Sayyida Khadijah (RA) mother of the believers, by Abdul Malik Mujahid, translated by Syed Ahmed Faisal Nahri- Maktaba Dar-us-Salam 2012, ISBN: 978-603-500-118-2 Website www.darussalamksa.com email Darussalam@awalnet.net.sa and info@darussalam.com  [Added on 11 March 2014]

                  ————— When Muhammad’s (Peace Be Upon Him) daughter Zaynab Bint Muhammad was 10 years old, her aunt Halah Bint Khwaylid proposed that she marry her son Abu Al-As. Page 87. [Zaynab’s year of marriage proposal is calculated as 610 CE.] Reference: Golden Stories of Sayyida Khadijah (RA) mother of the believers, by Abdul Malik Mujahid, translated by Syed Ahmed Faisal Nahri- Maktaba Dar-us-Salam 2012, ISBN: 978-603-500-118-2 Website www.darussalamksa.com email Darussalam@awalnet.net.sa and info@darussalam.com  [Added on 11 March 2014]

611 CE————– The Messenger of Allah was alone in the Cave of Hira on the day destined for the start of his prophetic mission. He was forty-one years old and it was the seventeenth day of Ramadan, the sixth of August 6~O C.E. Khadijah thought it would be a good idea to consult her cousin, the scholar Waraqah ibn Nawfal, and she took the Messenger of Allah to see him. http://ourislamonline.tripod.com/2histislam.htm 

             ————– One day, as he sat in the cave, he heard a voice, later identified as that of the Angel Gabriel. http://www.islamicity.com/education/ihame/default.asp?Destination=/education/ihame/1.asp

             —————Khadijah was the first to believe in Allah and His Messenger. After Khadijah, Ali ibn Abi Talib (may Allah be pleased with him) accepted Islam. He was ten years old at the time and living in the house of the Messenger of Allah. Zayd ibn Harithah, the freed slave of the Messenger of Allah, whom he had adopted, also became a Muslim. Abu Bakr ibn Abi Quhafah also accepted Islam. Through Abu Bakr’s work, some of the powerful Quraysh noblemen became Muslims. Uthman ibn Affan, Zubayr ibn al-Awwam, Abdur-Rahman ibn Awf, Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas and Talhah ibn Ubaydullah were among those he brought to the Messenger of Allah.

               ———-They were followed by other influential men of the Quraysh, including Abu Ubaydah ibn al-Jarrah, al-Arqam ibn Abi’l-Arqam, Uthman ibn Maz’un, Ubaydah ibn al-Harith ibn al-Muttalib, Sa’id ibn Zayd, Khabbab ibn al-Aratt, Abdullah ibn Mas’ud, Ammar ibn Yasir, and Suhayb (may Allah be pleased with them all). http://ourislamonline.tripod.com/3histislam.htm

614 CE————— The call to Islam on Mount Safa. The Messenger of Allah kept his mission secret for three years. Then Allah commanded him to display His religion openly. http://ourislamonline.tripod.com/3histislam.htm

              —————— The final struggle of the Roman empire -now called Byzantium– and Persia started under Khusrau II the Victorious (590-628). Again, the Sassanids were the aggressor. The Byzantines were weakened, because Italy had been invaded by the Langobards, the Slavs were taking hold of the Balkans, and Andalusia was lost to the Visigoths. It was the perfect moment to attack the Byzantine empire, and Khusrau acted accordingly. His armies ravaged the cities of Syria and sacked Jerusalem in 614. (The Jews welcomed the Persians, because the Christians had often persecuted them.) One of the objects the Persians took away was the relic of the True Cross.  http://www.livius.org/sao-sd/sassanids/sassanids.htm   [added on 10 Mar 2014]

615 CE  ————— Juwayriyah bint al-Harith, the Mother of the faithful, was born in 615 CE. We are told in ‘Women around The Messenger’, quote;  “Juwayriyah bint al-Harith, the Mother of the faithful, lived till the 50th year of Hijrah. She was said to have attained the age of sixty- five before she died.” [page 160/ Women Around The Messenger. Authored by Muhammad Ali Qutb. Translator Abdur Rafi Adewale Imam. Edition 2 (2008) International Islamic Publishing House] [added on 10 Mar 2014]

              ————– Muhammad PBUH and Khadijah’s (RA) daughter, Ruqayyah Bint Muhammad, and her husband, Uthman Ibn ‘Affan arrived in Abyssinia in Rajab of 5th year following the appointment of  Muhammad Peace Be Upon Him as a Messenger. Page 73. Reference: Golden Stories of Sayyida Khadijah (RA) mother of the believers, by Abdul Malik Mujahid, translated by Syed Ahmed Faisal Nahri- Maktaba Dar-us-Salam 2012, ISBN: 978-603-500-118-2 Website www.darussalamksa.com email Darussalam@awalnet.net.sa and info@darussalam.com  [Added on 11 March 2014]

617 CE, ————- In 617 CE the opponents of Muhammad PBUH prepared an agreement and posted it in Ka’bah, binding all Makkans to socially and economically boycott Muhammad PBUH and all members of Banu Hashim and Banu Muttalib. The opponents forced Muhammad PBUH and all of them out of Makkah in the valley of Shi’b Abi Talib where they all lived for three years. Page 76. Reference: Golden Stories of Sayyida Khadijah (RA) mother of the believers, by Abdul Malik Mujahid, translated by Syed Ahmed Faisal Nahri- Maktaba Dar-us-Salam 2012, ISBN: 978-603-500-118-2 Website www.darussalamksa.com email Darussalam@awalnet.net.sa and info@darussalam.com  [Added on 11 March 2014]

619 CE —————— Death of Hazrat Khadijah raziallah Taala anha. {Khadijah falls ill and dies The period of boycott, during which the Hashmites (Bani Hashim) remained almost shut away from the outer world, was a period of great ordeal. The conditions to which they had been subjected told upon the general health of the women and children. Khadijah who had already been worn down by the hardships in Shi’b Abi Talib, to which she had never been used, fell ill. It was some time in December, 619 A.D. that she died after a brief illness of three days.} http://www.pbuh.us/prophetMuhammad.php?f=Re_Wives

—————————- ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas was the son of ‘Abbas, an uncle of the noble Prophet. He was born just three years before the  hijrah.

http://sunnahonline.com/library/history-of-islam/299-abdullah-ibn-abbas [Added on 13-Oct- 2014]

620 CE, ————- Abu Talib, uncle of Muhammad PBUH, died soon after returning to Makkah from the valley of Shi’b Abi Talib. Khadijah (RA), wife of Muhammad PBUH, mother of believers, also died at age 65 years, three days after the death of Abu Talib. It was the month of Ramadan. Khadijah (RA) was buried at a place called Hujun. The year in which Abu Talib and Khadijah died is remembered in history as the Year of Grief. Page 81. Reference: Golden Stories of Sayyida Khadijah (RA) mother of the believers, by Abdul Malik Mujahid, translated by Syed Ahmed Faisal Nahri- Maktaba Dar-us-Salam 2012, ISBN: 978-603-500-118-2 Website www.darussalamksa.com email Darussalam@awalnet.net.sa and info@darussalam.com  [12 March 2014]

622 CE, 1 After Hijra ————–  16 Rabi Al Awwal 1 Hijra, Monday Sept 27, 622 CE arrival of Prophet uhammad Peace Be Upon Him and  Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddeeq in Yathrib. (Islamic Calendar starts)

624 AD, 2 AH ————- In Ramadan 2 AH, Abu Sufyan sent an army of a thousand men to attack Muslims in Madinah when he heard that Muslims wanted to raid a trade caravan of the Makkans. Page 94. Reference: Golden Stories of Sayyida Khadijah (RA) mother of the believers, by Abdul Malik Mujahid, translated by Syed Ahmed Faisal Nahri- Maktaba Dar-us-Salam 2012, ISBN: 978-603-500-118-2 Website www.darussalamksa.com email Darussalam@awalnet.net.sa and info@darussalam.com  [Added on 12 Mar 2014]

               2 AH ————– 13 March, 17 Ramadan 2Hijri Battle of Badr  took place. [page 280, Women around The Messenger /Muhammad Ali Qutb- Riyadh, Translator Abdur Rafi Adewale Imam. Edition 2 (2008) International Islamic Publishing House ISBN Hard Cover: 978-603-501-022-1 http://www.iiph.com.sa ] [Added on 12 Mar 2014]

               2 AH ————– Muad ibn Jabal, Companion of the Prophet Muhammad Peace Be Upon Him, participated in the Battle of Badr when he was twenty one years old. [page 253, Women around The Messenger /Muhammad Ali Qutb- Riyadh, Translator Abdur Rafi Adewale Imam. Edition 2 (2008) International Islamic Publishing House ISBN Hard Cover: 978-603-501-022-1 http://www.iiph.com.sa ] [Added on 12 Mar 2014]

               2 AH, ———— Fatima Bint Muhammad PBUH, the fourth and the last daughter of Prophet PBUH was in Madinah when the Battle of Badr took place in 2H. Page 139. Reference: Golden Stories of Sayyida Khadijah (RA) mother of the believers, by Abdul Malik Mujahid, translated by Syed Ahmed Faisal Nahri- Maktaba Dar-us-Salam 2012, ISBN: 978-603-500-118-2 Website www.darussalamksa.com email Darussalam@awalnet.net.sa and info@darussalam.com  [Added on 12 Mar 2014]

               2 AH, ———- Ruqayyah Bint Muhammad, the second daughter of Prophet Muhammad PBUH died at age 21, in 2H, just after the Battle of Badr. Page 123. Reference: Golden Stories of Sayyida Khadijah (RA) mother of the believers, by Abdul Malik Mujahid, translated by Syed Ahmed Faisal Nahri- Maktaba Dar-us-Salam 2012, ISBN: 978-603-500-118-2 Website www.darussalamksa.com email Darussalam@awalnet.net.sa and info@darussalam.com  [Added on 12 Mar 2014]

               2 AH ———- Fatima Bint Muhammad, fourth and the last daughter of Prophet Muhammad PBUH was married to Ali Bin Abu Talib after Battle of Badr. [The ages of Ali and Fatima were 24 years and 19 years respectively as calculated from the dates of birth given in history] Page 143. Reference: Golden Stories of Sayyida Khadijah (RA) mother of the believers, by Abdul Malik Mujahid, translated by Syed Ahmed Faisal Nahri- Maktaba Dar-us-Salam 2012, ISBN: 978-603-500-118-2 Website www.darussalamksa.com email Darussalam@awalnet.net.sa and info@darussalam.com [Added on 12 Mar 2014]

               2 AH. —————— Daughter of ‘Umar Bin Khatab whose name was Hafsah Bint ‘Umar, her husband, Khunays Ibn Hadhafah al-Sahmi died in Madinah after Battle of Badr. Muhammad PBUH married Hafsah Bint ‘Umar in 2H. Page 127. Reference: Golden Stories of Sayyida Khadijah (RA) mother of the believers, by Abdul Malik Mujahid, translated by Syed Ahmed Faisal Nahri- Maktaba Dar-us-Salam 2012, ISBN: 978-603-500-118-2 Website www.darussalamksa.com email Darussalam@awalnet.net.sa and info@darussalam.com  [Added on 12 March 2014]

               2 AH, —————– Zaynab Bint Muhammad came to Madinah in 2H . Page 105. Reference: Golden Stories of Sayyida Khadijah (RA) mother of the believers, by Abdul Malik Mujahid, translated by Syed Ahmed Faisal Nahri- Maktaba Dar-us-Salam 2012, ISBN: 978-603-500-118-2 Website www.darussalamksa.com email Darussalam@awalnet.net.sa and info@darussalam.com  Added on [12 March 2014]

624 CE, 3 AH, ——————– In Rabi al-Awwal 3A.H. Muhammad PBUH married his third daughter Umm Kulthum Bint Muhammad to ‘Usman Ibn ‘Affan, who became widower when Prophet Muhammad’s (PBUH) second daughter Ruqayya Bint Muhammad died in 2 AH. Page 129. Reference: Golden Stories of Sayyida Khadijah (RA) mother of the believers, by Abdul Malik Mujahid, translated by Syed Ahmed Faisal Nahri- Maktaba Dar-us-Salam 2012, ISBN: 978-603-500-118-2 Website www.darussalamksa.com email Darussalam@awalnet.net.sa and info@darussalam.com  [Added on 12 March 2014]

625 CE, 3 AH, ————— The first son of Fatimah Bint Muhammad and Ali Bin Abu Talib was born in Madinah on 15th Ramadan 3AH/ 1st April 625 CE. Page 164. The son of Fatimah and Ali was named Hasan by his grandfather, Prophet Muhammad PBUH. Page 151. Reference: Golden Stories of Sayyida Khadijah (RA) mother of the believers, by Abdul Malik Mujahid, translated by Syed Ahmed Faisal Nahri- Maktaba Dar-us-Salam 2012, ISBN: 978-603-500-118-2 Website www.darussalamksa.com email Darussalam@awalnet.net.sa and info@darussalam.com  [Added on 12 March 2014]

625 CE, 4 AH. ——————— Messenger of Allah Peace Be Upon Him sent Abu Salamah (a foster brother of the Prophet PBUH) to Banu Asad in the month of Safar, 4 H.; Abu Salamah succeeded in his mission and fulfilled the trust. [Page 133/ Women around The Messenger /Muhammad Ali Qutb- Riyadh, 2008 ISBN Hard Cover: 978-603-501-022-1 http://www.iiph.com.sa ] [Added on 26-feb-2013]

626 CE, 4 AH, ————— The second son of Fatimah Bint Muhammad and Ali Bin Abu Talib was born in Madinah on the 3rd day of Shaban 4AH. The child was named Husayn by his grandfather Prophet Muhammad PBUH. Page 179. Reference: Golden Stories of Sayyida Khadijah (RA) mother of the believers, by Abdul Malik Mujahid, translated by Syed Ahmed Faisal Nahri- Maktaba Dar-us-Salam 2012, ISBN: 978-603-500-118-2 Website www.darussalamksa.com email Darussalam@awalnet.net.sa and info@darussalam.com  [Added on 12 Mar 2014]

                   —————— In 626 CE, their advance-guards paused only a mile from Constantinople. The Persians even raided Cyprus and occupied Rhodes. It seemed as if the Achaemenid empire was restored, and Khusrau ordered the making of brilliant rock reliefs at Taq-e Bostan. [ http://www.livius.org/sao-sd/sassanids/sassanids.htm ] [Added on 26-Feb-2013]

626 CE, 5 H —————— Zaynab Bint Muhammad, first born of the Prophet Muhammad PBUH, died at the beginning of the 5th year of the Hijrah from the complications of a haemorrhage from which she had been suffering since her migration. [page 289, Women around The Messenger /Muhammad Ali Qutb- Riyadh, Translator Abdur Rafi Adewale Imam. Edition 2 (2008) International Islamic Publishing House ISBN Hard Cover: 978-603-501-022-1 http://www.iiph.com.sa ] [Added on 12 Mar 2014]

               5H, —————– Fatimah Bint Muhammad gave birth to a baby girl, who was named Zaynab, in 5H. Page 163. Reference: Golden Stories of Sayyida Khadijah (RA) mother of the believers, by Abdul Malik Mujahid, translated by Syed Ahmed Faisal Nahri- Maktaba Dar-us-Salam 2012, ISBN: 978-603-500-118-2 Website www.darussalamksa.com email Darussalam@awalnet.net.sa and info@darussalam.com [Added on 12 Mar 2014]  

627 CE, 5 H. ——- The Byzantine emperor Heraclius was to prove a match for Khusrau II the Victorious (590-628). He took some time to train an army, and in 627, he invaded Assyria and Mesopotamia. His campaign was extremely successful: he did not even return to his own empire during the winter, but stayed far behind the enemy lines. http://www.livius.org/sao-sd/sassanids/sassanids.htm  [Added on 26-Feb-2013]

628 CE, 6H, ————- In 6AH, Fatimah Bint Muhammad, gave birth to another baby girl, who was named Umm Kulthum Bint Ali. Page 189. Reference: Golden Stories of Sayyida Khadijah (RA) mother of the believers, by Abdul Malik Mujahid, translated by Syed Ahmed Faisal Nahri- Maktaba Dar-us-Salam 2012, ISBN: 978-603-500-118-2 Website www.darussalamksa.com email Darussalam@awalnet.net.sa and info@darussalam.com  [Added on 12 Mar 2014]

               6H, ———— In the month of Dhul- Qadah 6 H the Messenger of Allah Peace Be Upon Him set out on his camel, Qaswa, leading a group of about 1,500 men to Makkah to perform the ‘Umrah. They bore no arms except the swords in their scabbards. [page 318, Women around The Messenger /Muhammad Ali Qutb- Riyadh, Translator Abdur Rafi Adewale Imam. Edition 2 (2008) International Islamic Publishing House ISBN Hard Cover: 978-603-501-022-1 http://www.iiph.com.sa ]  [Added on 12 Mar 2014]

               6H, ————— After the Truce of Hudaybiyah that took place in the month of Shawwal of the year 6 H., the Messenger of Allah Peace Be Upon Him sent the message of Islam to the kings and the rulers of the world. [page 141, Women around The Messenger /Muhammad Ali Qutb- Riyadh, 2008 ISBN Hard Cover: 978-603-501-022-1 http://www.iiph.com.sa ] [Added on 26-Feb-2013]

628CE, 6 AH, ————- The Persian army mutinied and Khusrau II the Victorious (590-628) was murdered (628). His successor Ardašir III made peace and the relic of the True Cross was restored to Jerusalem. . [ http://www.livius.org/sao-sd/sassanids/sassanids.htm ]  [Added on 12 Mar 2014] 

————– Heraclius‘ victory meant the end of Persia. There were four Sassanid kings in four years, and because there was no real authority, the Arabs -Muslims– were able to defeat the Persians, who were still Zoroastrians. http://www.livius.org/sao-sd/sassanids/sassanids.htm [Added on 12 Mar 2014] 

629 CE, 8 H. —————- The 8th year of Hijrah was the year of the Conquest of Makkah. [page 149, Women around The Messenger /Muhammad Ali Qutb- Riyadh, 2008 ISBN Hard Cover: 978-603-501-022-1 http://www.iiph.com.sa ]  [Added on 12 Mar 2014] 

              8H. ————— The Battle of Hunayn took place in 8th year after Hijrah. [page 263, Women around The Messenger /Muhammad Ali Qutb- Riyadh, Translator Abdur Rafi Adewale Imam. Edition 2 (2008) International Islamic Publishing House ISBN Hard Cover: 978-603-501-022-1 http://www.iiph.com.sa ]  [Added on 12 Mar 2014]

               8H —————  Zaynab Bint Muhammad, the eldest daughter of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) died in 8H. Page 105. Reference: Golden Stories of Sayyida Khadijah (RA) mother of the believers, by Abdul Malik Mujahid, translated by Syed Ahmed Faisal Nahri- Maktaba Dar-us-Salam 2012, ISBN: 978-603-500-118-2 Website www.darussalamksa.com email Darussalam@awalnet.net.sa and info@darussalam.com   [Added on 12 Mar 2014] 

630 CE, 9 H. ————— Umm Kulthoom Bint Muhammad, third daughter of the Prophet Muhammad Peace Be Upon Him, died in the month of Shaban, 9 H.  [page 322, Women around The Messenger /Muhammad Ali Qutb- Riyadh, Translator Abdur Rafi Adewale Imam. Edition 2 (2008) International Islamic Publishing House ISBN Hard Cover: 978-603-501-022-1 http://www.iiph.com.sa ] Page 130. Reference: Golden Stories of Sayyida Khadijah (RA) mother of the believers, by Abdul Malik Mujahid, translated by Syed Ahmed Faisal Nahri- Maktaba Dar-us-Salam 2012, ISBN: 978-603-500-118-2 Website www.darussalamksa.com email Darussalam@awalnet.net.sa and info@darussalam.com   [Added on 12 Mar 2014] 

631 CE, 9 H.———–  Rustam conquered Armenia from its Byzantine governor Prince Varazdirot in A.D. 631. [This we read in the Armenian history by M. St. Martin] [http://www.iranchamber.com/history/articles/spahbod_rustam_farrukh_hormazd1.php [Added on 12 Mar 2014]

632 CE, 11 AH ———— 8 June, 12 Rabi al awwal 11 Hijri Prophet Muhammad Peace Be Upon Him died.

               11H, ——- Fatima Bint Muhammad died 6 months after the death of her father Prophet Muhammad Peace Be Upon Him. She died in Ramadan 11H. [In this book Fatimah’s age at death is given 29 years.] Page 163. Reference: Golden Stories of Sayyida Khadijah (RA) mother of the believers, by Abdul Malik Mujahid, translated by Syed Ahmed Faisal Nahri- Maktaba Dar-us-Salam 2012, ISBN: 978-603-500-118-2 Website www.darussalamksa.com email Darussalam@awalnet.net.sa and info@darussalam.com  [Added on 12 Mar 2014]

 632CE ——– The last Persian king was Yazdgard III, whose reign began in 632.  http://www.livius.org/sao-sd/sassanids/sassanids.htm  [Added on 12 Mar 2014] 

634 CE, 12 H ————- an army of 18,000 Arab Muslims, under the leadership of Khalid ibn al Walied, reached the perimeter of the Euphrates delta. http://www.salaam.co.uk/themeofthemonth/january02/arab.html#1

634 CE, 13 AH ——-  22 Aug, 23 Jamadi al aakhir 13 Hijri Hazrat Abu Bakr died.

638 AD, 17 AH ——-   Caliph Omer captured Jerusalem.

640 CE, 20 H ———————- Zaynab bint Jahsh al-Asadiyah, The Mother of the Faithful, died in the year 20 H. at the age of fifty three. [page 119, Women around The Messenger /Muhammad Ali Qutb- Riyadh, 2008 ISBN Hard Cover: 978-603-501-022-1 http://www.iiph.com.sa[Added on 10 Mar 2014]

661 CE, 40 AH —————————- Hadrat Ali (R.A.) was mortally wounded with the poisoned sword of Ibn Muljam. He passed away in the evening of Ramadan 20, 40 A.H.  http://ourislamonline.tripod.com/ali.htm [samia2010oct; 27 January 661] [Added on 28 Oct 2014]

665 CE, 44 AH ——————— Sa’id bin Jubayr was born in 665 CE in Kufa, Iraq. [Sa’id bin Jubayr (665–714) (Arabic: سعيد بن جبير), also known as Abū Muhammad, was originally from Kufa, in modern-day Iraq.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sa%27id_ibn_Jubayr#Life ]  [Added on 15 Oct 2014]

670 CE50 AH ——————– Imam Hasan bin Ali: Imam Hasan [a] attained martyrdom on the seventh day of the month of Safar (or the fifth or twentieth of the month of Rabi’ al-Awwal in some reports), in the year 50 A.H., (chapter POST-TREATY ERA) http://www.al-islam.org/gallery/kids/Books/2ndimam/index.htm ]

678 CE, 59 H———— Abu Hurayrah(r.a.) died in the year 59 A.H when he was seventy-eight years old. He helped to preserve and transmit the valuable legacy of the Prophet, may God bless him and grant him peace. http://darulihsan.com/index.php/articles/articles-2/biographies/item/3360-abu-hurairah-ra-the-narrator-of-the-most-hadith-biography

690 CE, 70 AH —————– ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas was the son of ‘Abbas, an uncle of the noble Prophet. He passed away at the age of seventy one in the mountainous city of Ta’if.

http://sunnahonline.com/library/history-of-islam/299-abdullah-ibn-abbas [Added on 13-Oct- 2014]

714 CE, 93 AH ——————- Abu Abdullah, Malik ibn Anas ibn Malik ibn Amer al-Asbahee was born in Madinah in the year 93 A.H. (714 CE). His ancestral home was in Yemen, but his grandfather settled in Madinah after embracing Islam.

Born into a well-to-do family, Imam Malik did not need to work for a living. He was highly attracted to the study of Islam, and ended up devoting his entire life to the study of Fiqh. Imam Malik received his education in what was the most important seat of Islamic learning, Madinah, and lived where the immediate descendants and the followers of the companions of the Prophet, sallallahu alayhi wasallam, were living. http://www.haqislam.org/imam-malik/ [added on 28 August 2013] 

                95 AH ————————- Sa’id bin Jubayr was martyred in the month of Sha’bān, 95 AH (ca. May 714) at the age of 49 in Iraq.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sa%27id_ibn_Jubayr#Life [added on 15 Oct 2014] 

778 CE, 161 AH, ——————- ‘Ali b. Sahl Rabban al-Tabari was born in 778 CE, as we are told in the article, ‘Ali b. Sahl Rabban al-Tabari Author of Firdaws al-hikma (Paradise of Wisdom), by Salim Ayduz, Part 2. Biography, Paragraph 5. “Evidently, Ali b. Rabbān was of a certain age so that he could remember the event. Therefore, most probably he was born around 778-9 CE.” http://muslimheritage.com/article/‘ali-b-sahl-rabban-al-tabari-author-firdaws-al-hikma-paradise-wisdom#ftnref2 [Added on 16-Jun-2014]

780 CE, 164 AH——————- Imam Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Hambal, the founder of the Hambali School of Muslim jurisprudence, is one of the greatest personalities of Islam who profoundly influenced both the historical development and modern revival. Born at Baghdad on the Ist of Rabi-ul-Awwal, 164 A.H. (December 780) Ahmad ibn Hambal was an Arab, belonging to Bani Shayban of Rabia, who had played an important role in the Muslim conquest of Iraq and Khorasan. http://www.renaissance.com.pk/mjuletfor96.html [added on 28 Aug 2013]

800 CE, 183 AH, ——————– In the 12th paragraph of the article, ‘History Through The Centuries’, by Professor Dr. Ahmad Hasan Dani,  we readIn the early eight Century Christian Era the Arabs brought Islam in Sindh and Multan, Pakistan, built up the kingdom of Al-Mansurah in Sindh. At the same time their east ward Sea trade introduced porcelain from China and popularized glass from Iran and Syria– new materials that can be seen in the excavations at Bambhore in Sindh, Pakistan.’  http://www.heritage.gov.pk/html_Pages/history1.html [added on 28 Aug 2013]

809 CE, 194 AH ————– Imâm al-muhaddithîn Hadrat Imâm Abû `Abdullâh Muhammad ibn Ismâ`îl al-Bukhârî was born on the 13th of the Islâmic month of Shawwâl, 194 AH, in the famous city of Bukhara, of the land “beyond the canal” – present day Uzbekistan. http://www.sunnah.org/history/Scholars/imam_bukhari.htm [Added on 28 Aug 2013]

817 CE, 202 AH —————— Imam Abu Dawud was born in Sajistan, a famous city in Khurasan in the year 202 A.H. He belonged to the Arab tribe, Azd. Even though he was born in Sajistan he spent the greater part of his life at Basrah which was the seat of Islamic learning in his time. Imam Abu Dawud also travelled for collecting hadith. Many times he visited Bagdad. He also went to Hijaz, Egypt, al-Jazirah, Nishapur, Syria and Isfahan.

Imam Abu Dawud heard hadith from 300 persons who were his teachers. Some were: Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Ishaq ibn Rahawaiy, Abu Thaur, Yahya ibn Ma’in. For one to grasp his elevated status, he narrated hadith to the teachers of Imam Ahmad. Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal also narrated one hadith from him. Among the students of Imam Abu Dawud are great personalities like:
Ibn Arabi, Abu `Isa al-Tirmidhi and Abu `Abdur-Rahman An Nasa’i.

They were transmitters of his famous work Sunan Abu Dawud. Imam Muslim was also one of his pupils. Imam Abu Dawud’s works are: 1] Kitab Al Radd Ala’ Ahl al Qadar, 2] Kitab Al Masa’il, 3] Musnad Malik, 4] Kitab Al Marasil, 5] Sunan Abu Dawud

  http://www.sunnah.org/history/Scholars/imam_abu_dawud.htm 

                                ————– The full name of Imam Muslim is Abu’l-Husain ‘Asakir-ud-Din Muslim b. Hajjaj al-Qushayri al-NaisaburiMuslim,” as his nasba shows, belonged to the Qushayr tribe of the Arabs, an offshoot of the great clan of Rabi’a. He was born in Naisabur (Nishapur) in 202 AH/817 CE or 206 AH/821 CE. http://www.sunnah.org/history/Scholars/Imam_muslim.htm [added on 28 Aug 2013]

824 CE, 209 AH —————– Imam at-Tirmidhi, full name Abū ‛Īsa Muḥammad ibn ‛Īsa ibn Sawrah ibn Mūsa ibn al Ḍaḥḥāk al-Sulamīat-Tirmidhī (209-279 AH/824–892 AD). He was born in the year 209 A.H. during the reign of the Abbasid Khalifa Ma’mun al-Rashid. The Abbasid Caliphate, despite its brilliant contributions to Islam, brought along with it many problems. Greek philosophy had a free flow into the Islamic world. This was fully sanctioned by the government until eventually it declared the Mu`tazila school of thought as the state religion. Anyone who opposed the Mu`tazila school of thought would be opposing the state. http://sunnah.com/tirmidhi/about [added on 28 Aug 2013]

                             ——————- Ibn Majah, Abu `Abdullah Muhammad bin Yazid bin `Abdullah titled as Ibn Majah was born in 209AH/824 CE in Qizwin, a famous city of Iran. http://munirahmadmughal.hubpages.com/hub/Ibn-Majah-Muhaddith [added on 15 Sept 2013]

829 CE, 214 AH ——————– Imām Aḥmad an-Nasā’ī, full name Imam Aḥmad ibn Shu`ayb ibn `Alī ibn Sīnān Abū `Abd ar-Raḥmān al-Nasā’ī was born in the famous city of Nasa, situated in Western Asia known at that time as Khurasan. http://sunnah.com/nasai/about [added on 15 Sept 2013]

864 CE, 249 AH, ——————- ‘Ali b. Sahl Rabban al-Tabari died in 864 CE, as we are told in the article, ‘Ali b. Sahl Rabban al-Tabari Author of Firdaws al-hikma (Paradise of Wisdom), by Salim Ayduz, Part 2. Biography, Paragraph 11. “The date of al-Tabarī’s death is not cited. However, as he converted to Islam when he was seventy years old, during the reign of Caliph al-Mutawakkil, and he composed few books after that time, it can be deduced that he passed away after 864 in either Baghdad or Samarra.” http://muslimheritage.com/article/‘ali-b-sahl-rabban-al-tabari-author-firdaws-al-hikma-paradise-wisdom#ftnref2 [Added on 16-Jun-2014]

864 CE, 250 AH ——————– Imam Bukhari (Rahimahullah) settled at Neshapur in 250 A.H.where he met Muslim ibn Al Hajjaj (Rahimahullah) as his disciple who compiled Sahih Al-Muslim which is regarded only second to Bukhari in the Muslim world.  http://darulihsan.com/index.php/articles/general/biographies/49-imam-bukhari-the-founder-of-hadith-science ]

865 CE, 251 AH, ——————– Abu Bakr Muhammad Ibn Zakariya al-Razi was born in al-Ray City near Tehran in 251 H / 865 CE and died there in 313 H / 925 CE. He was a well known Muslim physician and writer, whose medical writings greatly influenced the Islamic world as well as Western Europe in the Middle Ages. He wrote on almost every aspect of medicine. Al-Razi moved to Baghdad when he was forty years old, and headed many hospitals. Europe knew him under the Latinized form of his name, Rhazes.

   ————- Muhammad Ibn Zakariyya al-Razi was the first physician in history who described in details the symptoms and signs of smallpox and measles based on clinical examination, and he was the first who distinguished between these two diseases by putting what is called now the differential diagnosis.  http://muslimheritage.com/article/al-razi-smallpox-and-measles [Added on 16-Jun-2014]

874 CE, 261 H ———————- Imam Muslim ibn al Hajjaj died in 261 H/874 CE on account of having consumed too many dates. One day he was so engrossed in investigating a particular hadith, that he just did not notice that he had eaten all the dates in the container one by one. Consequently, he took ill and died in 874 CE. Sahih Muslim was authored by Muslim ibn Al Hajjaj (Rahimahullah). http://www.cpsglobal.org/content/imam-muslim-204-261

887 CE, 273 AH ——————– Ibn Majah died on 22nd of Ramadan al-Mubarik 273 AH/ 18th of February, 887 AD at Qizwin, Iran, and was buried there.  http://munirahmadmughal.hubpages.com/hub/Ibn-Majah-Muhaddith  [added on 15 Sept 2013]

889 CE, 275 H ——————— Imam Abu Dawud died on Friday 16th Shawwal 275 A.H. at the age of 72.  http://www.sunnah.org/history/Scholars/imam_abu_dawud.htm

895 CE, 281 AH, ———— One of the leading intellectual innovators was the historian Abu al-Hasan ‘Ali ibn al-Husayn al-Mas’udi. He was born in the city of Baghdad, in about 895 CEhttp://muslimheritage.com/article/model-historians [Added on 16-Jun-2014]

915 CE, 303 AH ——————- Imām Aḥmad an-Nasā’ī, full name Imam Aḥmad ibn Shu`ayb ibn `Alī ibn Sīnān Abū `Abd ar-Raḥmān al-Nasā’ī passed away at the age of 88 on Monday 13th of Safar 303 AH in the holy city near the Ka’ba and he was buried between Safa and Marwahttp://sunnah.com/nasai/about [added on 15 Sept 2013] 

925 CE, 313 AH, —————- Abu Bakr Muhammad Ibn Zakariya al-Razi died in al-Ray in 313 AH / 925 CE. He was a well known Muslim physician and writer, whose medical writings greatly influenced the Islamic world as well as Western Europe in the Middle Ages. He wrote on almost every aspect of medicine. Al-Razi moved to Baghdad when he was forty years old, and headed many hospitals. Europe knew him under the Latinized form of his name, Rhazes.

—————– Muhammad Ibn Zakariyya al-Razi was the first physician in history who described in details the symptoms and signs of smallpox and measles based on clinical examination, and he was the first who distinguished between these two diseases by putting what is called now the differential diagnosis.  http://muslimheritage.com/article/al-razi-smallpox-and-measles [Added on 16-Jun-2014] 

957 CE, 345 AH, ————– Abul Hasan Ali Ibn Husain Ibn Ali Al-Masu’di was a descendant of Abdallah Ibn Masu’d, a companion of the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him). An expert geographer, a physicist and historian, Masu’di was born in the last decade of the 9th century C.E., his exact date of birth being unknown. He was a Mutazilite Arab, who explored distant lands and died at Cairo, in 957 C.Ehttp://www.sunnah.org/history/scientists/al_masudi.htm http://historyofislam.com/contents/the-classical-period/al-masudi/ [Added on 16-Jun-2014]

1018 CE, 409 AH—— the grand-vizier Nizâm al-Mulk served in Baghdad. (1018–92 CE).

1044 CE, 436 AH—— Omer Khayam was born.

1058 CE, 450 AH or 1059 CE, 451 AH————–   Abû Hâmid Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Ghazâlî was born in Tabarân-Tûs (15 miles north of modern Meshed, NE Iran), yet notes about his age in his letters and his autobiography indicate that he was born in 1055 or 1056 CE. Abû Hâmid Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Ghazâlî was one of the most prominent and influential philosophers, theologians, jurists, and mystics of Sunni Islam. He was active at a time when Sunni theology had just passed through its consolidation and entered a period of intense challenges from Shiite Ismâ’îlite theology and the Arabic tradition of Aristotelian philosophy (falsafa). [Al-Ghazali (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) Copyright © 2007 by Frank Griffel <frank.griffel@yale.edu>]

1150 CE, 544 AH ………………. (these years are a guess by samia2010oct from the following statement) Ibn al-Yāsam ī n, Abū M. ‘Abd Allah b. M. b. Hajjāj al-‘Adrīnī, North African mathematician,  was born in the twelfth century. He had his origins in the Berber tribe of Banū Hajjāj, from Qala ‘at Fandalāwa, and was black like hismother.

The chronicler Ibn Al-`Ābār (XIIIe century) insists on the fame of Ibn al-Yāsamīn, considering him as a personality versed in the field of literature and languages, and able to produce texts in prose or verses, such as ‘muwashshahāt’, which was put in music and sung at his time. (pg 2) http://www.academia.edu/3573011/The_Eight_Hundred_Anniversary_of_the_Death_of_Ibn_al-Yasamin_ [Added on 15-Jun-2014]

1174 CE, 569 AH, —————— Like his father before him, Badi Al-Zaman Abul-Ezz Ibn Ismail Ibn Al-Razzaz Al-Jazari, the most outstanding Mechanical Engineer of his time, served Urtuq kings of Diyar-Bakir, from 1174-1200 as a Mechanical Engineer. http://english.islammessage.com/articledetails.aspx?articleId=467 [Added on 15-Jun-2014]

1200 CE, 596 AH, ——————– Till 1200 CE Badi Al-Zaman Abul-Ezz Ibn Ismail Ibn Al-Razzaz Al-Jazari, the most outstanding Mechanical Engineer of his time, served Urtuq kings of Diyar-Bakir. As we are told “Like his father before him, Badi Al-Zaman Abul-Ezz Ibn Ismail Ibn Al-Razzaz Al-Jazari served Urtuq kings of Diyar-Bakir, from 1174-1200 as a Mechanical Engineer.”, in the article ‘Al-Jazari’ http://english.islammessage.com/articledetails.aspx?articleId=467 [Added on 15-Jun-2014]

1204 CE, 600 AH, ……………………… according to Ibn Al-`Ābār, Abū M. ‘Abd Allah b. M. b. Hajjāj al-‘Adrīnī was murdered in 1204; his mutilated and ill-treated body was thrown infront of his residence in Marrakech. Does this explain his disappearance from most chronicles of thetime, or was this the consequence of his close association with the Almohād rulers? (pg 2)  http://www.academia.edu/3573011/The_Eight_Hundred_Anniversary_of_the_Death_of_Ibn_al-Yasamin_ [Added on 15-Jun-2014] 

1206 CE, 602 AH, ——————— in 1206 CE, a brilliant Muslim scholar died: Badi’ al-Zaman Abu al-‘Izz ibn Ismail ibn al-Razzaz al-Jazari. He was one of the most important inventors and mechanical engineers in the history of technology. http://muslimheritage.com/article/al-jazari-800-years-after [Added on 15-Jun-2014]

                                   ——————— In 1206 he completed an outstanding book on engineering entitled “Al-Jami Bain Al-Ilm Wal-Amal Al-Nafi Fi Sinat’at Al-Hiyal” in Arabic. It was a compendium of theoretical and practical mechanics. http://english.islammessage.com/articledetails.aspx?articleId=467 [Added on 15-Jun-2014]

                                  ———————– “Al-Jami Bain Al-Ilm Wal-Amal Al-Nafi Fi Sinat’at Al-Hiyal” means (A Compendium on the Theory and Useful Practice of the Mechanical Arts). This translation was taken from ‘The List of Al-jazari Articles Published on Muslim Heritage Website’  http://muslimheritage.com/article/list-al-jazari-articles-published-muslim-heritage-website [Added on 15-Jun-2014]

                                  ————————– By 1206 Al-Jazari wrote an outstanding book on Engineering called ‘The Book of Knowledge of Ingeneous Mechanical Devices’. This book became an invaluable source for people of different engineering backgrounds. (Chapter 1, Home, page 14, Clocks) http://muqith.files.wordpress.com/2012/06/1001inventions-muslimheritageinourworld.pdf [Added on 15-Jun-2014]

1332 CE732 AH, —————- Ibn Khaldun was born, in Tunis, on May 7, 1332 CE. He received an excellent classical education, but when he was 17, the plague, or Black Death, reached the city. http://english.islammessage.com/ArticleDetails.aspx?articleId=1345 [Added on 16-Jun-2014]

—————– Ibn Khaldun connects chess to an Indian named Sassa Ibn Dahir, an eminent man of wisdom. (Chapter 1, Home, page 18, Chess) http://muqith.files.wordpress.com/2012/06/1001inventions-muslimheritageinourworld.pdf

1349 CE, 749 AH, —————– The Great Plague or Black Death, reached Tunis in 1349 CE. As we are told in the article ‘The Life of Ibn Khaldun’; [Ibn Khaldun was born, in Tunis, on May 7, 1332. He received an excellent classical education, but when he was 17, the plague, or Black Death, reached the city.] http://english.islammessage.com/ArticleDetails.aspx?articleId=1345  [Added on 16-Jun-2014]

1406 CE, 808 AH, —————— Ibn Khaldun (d. 1406/808) was a 14th century Muslim thinker, born in what is now Tunisia, who wrote on many subjects, including on the rise and fall of nations in his Muqaddima. His writings on economics, economic surplus and economic oriented policies are as relevant today as they were during his time. http://muslimheritage.com/article/economic-theory-ibn-khaldun-and-rise-and-fall-nations  [Added on 16-Jun-2014]

1588 CE, 996 AH, ————————- Sheikh ‘Abd-al-Kader wrote the earliest known history of coffee manuscript in 1588(Chapter 1, Home, page 12, On the Coffee Trail) http://muqith.files.wordpress.com/2012/06/1001inventions-muslimheritageinourworld.pdf [Added on 15-Jun-2014]

1645 CE, 1054 AH, ———————– The first coffee house in Europe appeared in Venice in 1645, after coffee came to Europe through trade with North Africa and Egypt. (Chapter 1, Home, page 12, On the Coffee Trail) http://muqith.files.wordpress.com/2012/06/1001inventions-muslimheritageinourworld.pdf [Added on 15-Jun-2014]

1650 CE, 1059 AH, ———————– It was a Turk named Pasqua Rosee, a merchant in 1650 CE, who first brought coffee into the UK. (Chapter 1, Home, page 12, On the Coffee Trail) http://muqith.files.wordpress.com/2012/06/1001inventions-muslimheritageinourworld.pdf [Added on 15-Jun-2014]

1683 CE, 1094 AH, ———————– In 1683 a new way of preparing and drinking coffee, later named as ‘cappuccino coffee’, was discovered by a certain Marco d’Aviano, a priest from the Capuchin monastic order. (Chapter 1, Home, page 12, On the Coffee Trail) http://muqith.files.wordpress.com/2012/06/1001inventions-muslimheritageinourworld.pdf [Added on 15-Jun-2014]

 [Added on 10 Mar 2014]

Thanks for being with me.

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About Samia's Interests.

It is a non political, non profit site. All external site Links which I use I agree to them only in that part which I already used, not more than that.
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